Oil Pollution of the Sea (Civil Liability and Compensation) Act, 1988

Exemption from liability for pollution damage.

8.—The owner of a ship which has caused pollution damage shall not be liable for such damage if he proves that the discharge of oil which caused the damage—

(a) resulted from an act of war, hostilities, civil war, insurrection or a natural phenomenon of an exceptional, inevitable and irresistible character; or

(b) was due wholly to anything done, or left undone, by any other person (other than a servant or agent of such owner) with intent to do damage; or

(c) was due wholly to the negligence or wrongful act of any government or other authority responsible for the maintenance of lights or other navigational aids in the exercise of that function.