S.I. No. 384/1953 - Standard Specification (Cotton Dungaree Cloth) Order, 1953.


S.I. No. 384 of 1953.

STANDARD SPECIFICATION (COTTON DUNGAREE CLOTH) ORDER, 1953.

I, SEAN F. LEMASS, Minister for Industry and Commerce, in exercise of the power conferred on me by subsection (3) of section 20 of the Industrial Research and Standards Act, 1946 (No. 25 of 1946), hereby order as follows :

1. This Order may be cited as the Standard Specification (Cotton Dungaree Cloth) Order, 1953.

2.—(1) The specification set forth in the Schedule to this Order is hereby declared to be the standard specification for Cotton Dungaree Cloth.

(2) The said standard specification may be cited as Irish Standard 49 : 1953 or as I.S. 49 : 1953.

SCHEDULE

SCOPE

1. This specification covers the requirements of cotton cloth suitable for the manufacture of protective garments.

COMPOSITION

2. The yarn in both warp and weft shall be composed entirely of thoroughly cleaned cotton free from waste.

MANUFACTURE

3. The cloth shall be of uniform width and weave and shall be manufactured in conformity with the best manufacturing practice.

WEAVE AND TYPE

4. The cloth shall be bleached, unbleached or dyed and shall be woven 2/1 three shaft, 3/1 four shaft or 4/1 five shaft.

The cloth shall be one of the following types:

Bleached—First Grade

Bleached—Second Grade

Unbleached—First Grade

Unbleached—Second Grade

Dyed—First Grade

Dyed—Second Grade

WIDTHS

5. The width of the cloth shall be either not less than 28 in. and not more than 29 in. or not less than 36 in. and not more than 37 in.

The width of the cloth shall be determined as described in Appendix A.

WEIGHT, THREADS PER INCH, TENSILE STRENGTH AND FILLING

6. The weight, number of threads per inch, tensile strength and filling shall conform to the requirements set out for each type in Table I.

The determination of the weight, the number of threads per inch, the tensile strength and the filling shall be carried out in accordance with the methods described in Appendices B, C, D and E, respectively.

TABLE 1

Type

Minimum weight per sq. yd.

Minimum number of threads per inch

Minimum tensile strength per 4 in. of width

Maximum filling

warp

weft

warp

weft

oz.

lb.

lb.

per cent.

Bleached—First Grade

10·0

72

52

500

450

5·0

Bleached—Second Grade

8·5

82

48

500

375

5·0

Unbleached—First Grade

11·5

72

52

500

450

5·0

Unbleached—Second Grade

9·5

82

48

500

375

5·0

Dyed—First Grade

10·0

72

52

500

450

5·0

Dyed—Second Grade

8·5

82

48

500

375

5·0

SHRINKAGE

7. The cloth shall be so processed that when tested by the method described in Appendix F the shrinkage on laundering of the cloth shall be not more than one per cent. in the warp and one per cent. in the weft.

CUPRAMMONIUM FLUIDITY

8. The apparent fluidity of a cuprammonium solution of the cloth from which the sizing, finishing and other non-fibrous materials have been removed shall not exceed 7·5 reciprocal poises (rhes). The method of determining the apparent fluidity shall be that entitled " Determination of the Fluidity of Cotton or Regenerated Cellulose Rayons," given in British Standard Handbook No. 11, Methods of Test for Textiles, published by the British Standards Institution, 28 Victoria Street, London. The method used for preparing the cloth for the test shall be that used for obtaining " clean dry fibre " as described in Appendix E.

COLOUR FASTNESS TO WASHING

9. Dyed first grade and dyed second grade cloths, when tested as described in Appendix G, shall show no visible evidence of change in colour, either through loss of depth or change in hue, and shall cause no staining of any white fabric with which it is in contact during the test.

MARKING

10. The cloth shall be clearly and indelibly marked at each end of each piece with the manufacturer's name or mark, the words " First Grade " or " Second Grade " and the length of the piece.

SAMPLES FOR TESTS

11. Samples of cloth required for tests shall be cut and not torn from the piece at a position not less than three yards from the end of the piece. They shall be the full width of the cloth and shall be not less than two yards in length.

CONDITIONING OF SAMPLES FOR TESTS

12. Determinations of weight, tensile strength and shrinkage shall be made on materials conditioned in the open piece for not less than 24 hours in an atmosphere having a relative humidity of 65 ± 2 per cent. and a temperature of 20°C. ±2°C. The tests shall be carried out under the same conditions of temperature and relative humidity.

APPENDIX A

Determination of Width

The cloth shall be laid out, without tension in either direction, on a smooth horizontal surface, so as to be smooth and free from wrinkles or creases. The distance between the outside edges on a line perpendicular to the selvedge shall be measured to the nearest 1/16 inch. Five measurements shall be taken at different places so as to be representative of the width of the material, no measurement being taken within 12 inches from the ends. The average of the five measurements shall be taken as the width of the cloth.

APPENDIX B

Determination of Weight

A specimen, of at least 100 square inches in area, and at least 10 in. long in the warp direction, having been fully conditioned, as set out in Clause 12, shall be measured to the nearest 11/6 in., and weighed with an accuracy of not less than 0·1 per cent. The weight per square yard shall be calculated to the nearest 0·1 ounce as follows :

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APPENDIX C

Determination of the Number of Threads per inch

The number of warp threads per inch shall be determined by taking the average of five different measurements across the material. No individual yarn shall occur in more than one set of measurements. No measurement shall be made nearer the selvedge than one-tenth of the width of the material.

The number of weft threads per inch shall be determined by taking the average of five different measurements along the material. No individual yarn shall occur in more than one set of measurements.

All measurements shall be made over a distance of not less than 1 inch.

APPENDIX D

Determination of Tensile Strength

Specimens at least 10 in. long and 4½ in. wide shall be cut from the sample, five in each direction warp and weft. No two specimens in a warp or weft set shall include the same yarns and the specimens selected for the determination of weft strength shall be taken in different positions relative to the warp. No specimen shall be taken nearer a selvedge than one-tenth of the width of the cloth. The specimen shall be ravelled down to an exact width of 4 in. by removing approximately the same number of yarns from each side and conditioned as set out in Clause 12. The determinations shall be carried out on a horizontal testing machine with a rate of traverse of 18 in. per minute, the length of cloth between the grips being 7 in. and the full width of the specimen being gripped by the clamps.

Determinations shall be made on each set of five specimens and the average for each set taken.

Any determination made on a specimen which breaks or slips in the clamps or breaks at the edge of a clamp or any determination which for any reason attributable to faulty operation differs markedly from the average for the set, shall be regarded as faulty and rejected and an additional sample shall be tested and the new result, if not faulty, shall be included in the calculation of the average result.

APPENDIX E

Determination of Percentage Filling

A specimen representative of the sample and weighing about 5 g., shall be dried in an oven to constant weight at 105°C. to 110°C. and this weight shall be termed " weight of dry specimen."

The dry specimen shall be extracted with carbon tetrachloride in a Soxhlet extractor for two hours at a rate such that the solvent is changed 10 times per hour during the operation.

The specimen shall be allowed to dry in air and then shall be immersed in distilled water and boiled gently for twenty minutes. It shall then be removed and the surplus water squeezed out. The specimen shall then be immersed in an aqueous solution at 50°C. to 60°C. containing a 3 to 5 per cent. solution of malt or other suitable enzyme. The specimen shall be squeezed while immersed then removed and squeezed again. This process of squeezing while immersed and after removal shall be repeated at least six times to ensure thorough wetting of the fibres by the enzyme solution. The specimen shall then be left immersed in the enzyme solution for one hour, the temperature of the solution during this time being maintained at the optimum temperature for the enzyme used.

The specimen shall be removed, squeezed and then immersed for 30 minutes in boiling water and removed and squeezed and then rinsed three times in fresh portions of hot distilled water, squeezing after each rinse. Again the specimen shall be dried to constant weight at a temperature of 105°C. to 110°C. and this weight shall be termed " weight of clean dry fibre."

The percentage filling shall be taken as

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APPENDIX F

Determination of Shrinkage on Laundering

A test specimen not less than one yard long and the full width of the cloth shall be cut from the sample taken in accordance with Clause 11. The test specimen shall be conditioned as described in Clause 12. The test specimen shall be laid out without tension in either direction on a smooth flat surface and shall be marked with three pairs of parallel marks in both warp and weft directions, the pairs of marks being staggered and evenly distributed across the test specimen as shown in Fig. 1. The minimum distance of any mark from the selvedge or edge of the test specimen shall be 2 in. and the distance between the pairs of marks on the test specimen shall be at least 18 in. The marking shall be carried out by inserting fast-coloured sewing threads parallel to the warp or to the weft, or by the use of indelible ink.

The distance between the marks forming each pair shall be measured with a rigid rule having 1/16; in. graduations.

A washing machine of the horizontal cylindrical rotating cage type provided with reversing mechanism and fitted with internal lifters or baffles shall be used for this test. The diameter of the cage shall be not less than 16 in., and not more than 30 in.

The peripheral speed of rotation of a 24 in. diameter cage shall be 28 revolutions per minute throughout the course of the test and the peripheral speed of rotation of a cage of diameter other than 24 in., shall be adjusted to correspond with the speed of the 24 in. diameter cage.

The weight of cloth used in the machine during testing shall be 3½ lb. of air-dried fabric per cubic foot of cage space, including the volume of the lifters. If necessary, additional specimens shall be included to make up this weight.

One half-gallon of washing solution per lb. of cloth shall be used in the washing, and one gallon of water per lb. of cloth in the rinsing, for machines with approximately 1 in. cage clearance and for other clearances the volumes shall be adjusted proportionally.

The washing solution shall consist of a solution of 0·1 per cent. to 0·15 per cent. of soap flakes and 0·1 per cent. to 0·15 per cent. anhydrous soda ash in soft water. The concentration for each ingredient shall be increased by 0·1 per cent. for each ten parts per 100,000 of hardness. The concentration of the washing solution shall be such that good running suds are produced during washing. An increase in the concentration of the ingredients shall be made if the test specimen contains soap-destroying fillings.

The test specimen and additional specimens if required to make up the correct weight of cloth, shall be placed in the cage and the cage shall be set rotating at the correct speed.

The requisite quantity of washing solution shall be added to the machine while it is rotating. The washing shall be continued for a period of 60 minutes without interruption. During the first five minutes of this period the temperature of the solution shall be raised to a value of not less than 93° C. and the temperature of the solution shall be maintained at this value for the remaining 55 minutes. The washing solution shall be discharged from the machine without interrupting its rotation. The requisite quantity of water shall be added to the machine and rinsing with this water shall be continued for 5 minutes after all the water is added. The rinsing water shall then be discharged. This rinsing operation shall be carried out four times and the temperatures of the rinsing water in the four rinses shall be 82° C., 49° C., 32° C., and cold, respectively.

Surplus water shall be removed from the test specimen by centrifuging for not less than 7 minutes. The test specimen shall be pressed immediately after centrifuging by means of a heated flat-iron or flat-headed press until it is free from creases. The iron shall not be allowed to slide over the cloth.

The test specimen shall then be conditioned as described in Clause 12.

The test specimen shall then be laid out without tension on a flat surface and shall be free from creases. The distance between the marks shall be measured.

Changes of the dimensions in the warp and weft directions shall be separately recorded as percentages of the original values. The average of the three measurements in each direction shall be taken to the nearest 0·1 per cent.

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Fig. I. Marking of Test Specimens.

APPENDIX G

Determination of Colour Fastness to Washing

On the opposite sides of a 4 in. x 4 in. sample of cloth shall be firmly sewn 4 in. X 2 in. pieces of undyed bleached cotton Iimbric so that the sample is half-covered on both sides.

The soap used in this test shall comply with the following requirements :

Total fatty materials not less than 81 per cent.

Total impurities not more than 1 per cent.

Total free alkali, calculated as Na2O, not more than 0·4 per cent., of which the free caustic alkali, calculated as Na2O, shall not exceed 0·1 per cent. on the weight of the soap.

Total resin acids not more than 2 per cent. of the total fatty and resin acids.

An aqueous solution of 5 g. of soap and 2 g. of sodium carbonate of 98 to 100 per cent. purity, in one litre shall be prepared.

A quantity of the soap solution equal to 50 times the weight of the composite sample shall be placed in a jar of 1 pint capacity together with ten monel metals or stainless-steel balls of 0·25 in. in diameter. The jar and its contents shall be heated to a temperature of 93° C. The composite sample shall then be placed in the jar which shall be fitted with an air-tight lid. The jar shall be rotated in a suitableapparatus so that the jar is turned completely end over end approximately 40 times per minute. The temperature of the contents of the jar shall be maintained at 93° C. throughout the period of totation.

After the first ten minutes of treatment, the soap solution in the jar shall be replaced by a similar fresh solution at the same temperature, in order to minimise the effect of any finishing substances present in the sample. The rotation shall be continued for the remaining 20 minutes.

The composite sample shall then be removed from the jar and shall be well rinsed in water. The fabrics shall be separated and dried. The sample of cloth shall be examined visually and compared with a piece of the original material.

GIVEN under my Official Seal this 7th day of December, 1953.

(Signed) SE?N F. LEMASS,

Minister for Industry and Commerce.