Actors of protection
31. (1) For the purposes of this Act, protection against persecution or serious harm can only be provided by—
(a) a state, or
(b) parties or organisations, including international organisations, controlling a state or a substantial part of the territory of a state,
provided that they are willing and able to offer protection in accordance with subsection (2).
(2) Protection against persecution or serious harm—
(a) must be effective and of a non-temporary nature, and
(b) shall be regarded as being generally provided where—
(i) the actors referred to in paragraphs (a) and (b) of subsection (1) take reasonable steps to prevent the persecution or suffering of serious harm, and
(ii) the applicant has access to such protection.
(3) When assessing whether an international organisation controls a state or a substantial part of its territory and provides protection as described in subsection (2), the Minister, the international protection officer or, as the case may be, the Tribunal, shall take into account any guidance which may be provided in relevant European Union acts.
(4) The steps referred to in subsection (2)(b)(i) shall include the operating of an effective legal system for the detection, prosecution and punishment of acts constituting persecution or serious harm.