S.I. No. 341/1953 - Merchant Shipping (Life-Saving and Fire Appliances) Rules, 1953.


S.I. No. 341 of 1953.

MERCHANT SHIPPING (LIFE-SAVING AND FIRE APPLIANCES) RULES, 1953.

ARRANGEMENT OF RULES.

PART I.

GENERAL

Rule

Interpretation and Repeal

1

Classification of ships

2

PART II.

LIFEBOATS, BUOYANT APPARATUS AND OTHER LIFE-SAVING; APPLIANCES.

Provision of Life-Saving Appliances

3

PASSENGER SHIPS.

Class I Passenger steamers on long international voyages

4

Class II Passenger steamers on short international voyages

5

Class III Passenger steamers on voyages other than international voyages

6

Class IV Passenger steamers plying on short excursions to sea

7

Class V Passenger steamers plying in partially smooth water

8

Class VI Passenger steamers plying in smooth water

9

Class VII Passenger steamers (launches and motor boats) plying for short distances to sea

10

NON-PASSENGER SHIPS

Class VIII Steamers on long international voyages

11

Class IX Steamers engaged only in the whaling industry

12

Class X Steamers on short international voyages

13

Class XI Steamers on voyages other than international voyages

14

Class XII Tugs, tenders, launches, lighters, dredgers, barges, hoppers and hulks which proceed to sea

15

Class XIII Tugs, tenders, launches, lighters, dredgers, barges, hoppers and hulks which do not proceed to sea

16

Class XIV Fishing boats

17

Class XV Sailing ships which proceed to sea

18

Class XVI Pleasure yachts exceeding 15 tons burden

19

Requirements for Lifeboats, Buoyant Apparatus and other Life-saving Appliances.

Rule

General requirements for lifeboats

20

General requirements for motor lifeboats

21

Internal buoyancy appliances

22

General requirements for mechanically-propelled lifeboats

23

Carrying capacity of lifeboats

24

Buoyant apparatus

25

Marking of lifeboats and buoyant apparatus

26

Equipment of lifeboats

27

Lifeboats for more than 60 persons

28

Security of lifeboat equipment

29

Rations

30

Radiotelegraph equipment and searchlights on motor lifeboats

31

Portable radio-telegraph equipment

32

Stowage and handling of lifeboats and buoyant apparatus

33

Lifejackets

34

Lifebuoys

35

Lifebuoy lights

36

Stowage of lifebuoys and lifejackets

37

Line-throwing appliances

38

Miscellaneous Provisions.

Embarkation in the lifeboats

39

Electrically-operated signals

40-41

Certificated lifeboatmen

42

Manning of lifeboats

43

Ships' distress rocket signals

44

Equivalents and exemptions

45

PART III.

FIRE APPLIANCES.

Passenger Ships.

Class I Ships

46-55

Fire patrol, Alarm and Detection systems

46

Passenger and crew spaces>

47

Cargo spaces and store rooms

48

Machinery spaces: General

49

Machinery spaces in ships fitted with main or auxiliary oil-fired boilers

50

Engine rooms: Motor ships

51

Fire pumps

52

Water pipes, hydrants and fire hose

53

Firemen's outfits

54

Portable drilling machines

55

Class II Ships

56

Class III Ships

57

Rule

Class IV Ships

58-64

Passenger and crew spaces

58

Cargo spaces and store rooms

59

Machinery spaces, etc.

60

Machinery spaces: ships fitted with main or auxiliary oil-fired boilers

61

Engine rooms: Motor ships

62

Water pipes, hydrants and fire hoses

63

Fire pumps

64

Class V Ships

65-71

Passenger and crew spaces

65

Cargo spaces and store rooms

66

Machinery spaces, etc.

67

Machinery spaces: Ships fitted with main or auxiliary oil-fired boilers

68

Engine rooms: Motor ships

69

Water pipes, Hydrants and fire hoses

70

Fire pumps

71

Class VI Ships

72-74

Fully-decked ships

72

Motor ships not fully-decked

73

Partially-decked Motor ships

74

Class VII Ships

75

Non-Passenger Ships.

Class VIII Ships

76-82

Cargo spaces

76

Fire hoses and pumps

77

Portable fire extinguishers

78

Firemen's outfits

79

Portable drilling machine

80

Machinery spaces: ships with main or auxiliary oil-fired boilers

81

Engine rooms: Motor ships

82

Class IX Ships

83

Class X Ships

84-87

Ships of 1,000 tons and over

84

Ships of 500 tons or over but under 1,000 tons

85

Ships of 150 tons or over but under 500 tons

86

Ships of under 150 tons

87

Classes XI, XII and XIII Ships

88

Class XIV Ships

89

Class XV Ships

90

Class XVI Ships

91

Miscellaneous Provisions.

Power Pumps

92

Water pipes and hydrants

93

Fire hoses, nozzles, etc.

94

Fire buckets

95

Fire extinguishers

96

Smothering-gas or steam installations

97

Stopping of fans and Closing of openings

98

Rule

Safety Lamps

99

Stowage of movable fire appliances

100

Equivalents and Exemptions

101

PART IV.

MUSTERS.

Muster List

102

Emergency Signal for Passengers

103

Training

104

PART V.

PILOT LADDERS.

Provision of Pilot Ladders

105

SCHEDULES.

Page

I.

Table showing minimum numbers of sets of davits and capacity of lifeboats in ships of Classes I, II and III

115

II.

Table showing minimum number of sets of davits in ships of Classes IV and V

115

III.

Construction and capacity of lifeboats

117-119

IV.

Machinery of motor lifeboats

119-121

Part I. Class A motor lifeboats

119

Part II. Class B motor lifeboats

119

V.

Mechanically propelled lifeboats, other than motor lifeboats

121

VI.

Lifeboat equipment

121-129

Part I. Compasses

121

Part II. Sea anchors

125

Part III. First aid outfits

125

Part IV. Manual pumps

127

Part V. Lifeboat distress rocket signals

129

VII.

Lifeboat disengaging gears

129-131

VIII.

Davits and lifeboat launching gear

131-137

Part I. Construction

131

Part II. Lowering tests

137

IX.

Buoyant apparatus

137-139

X.

Lifebuoys

139

XI.

Lifejackets

139-141

XII.

Ships' distress rocket signals

141-143

XIII.

Froth fire extinguishing installations

143

XIV.

Non-portable froth fire extinguishers

143-145

XV.

Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers

145-147

XVI.

Carbon tetrachloride fire extinguishers

147

XVII.

Portable fire extinguishers (other than carbon dioxide and carbon tetrachloride extinguishers)

147-149

XVIII.

Breathing apparatus, smoke helmets and smoke masks

149

I, SEAN F. LEMASS, Minister for Industry and Commerce, in exercise of the powers conferred upon me by Section 427 of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894 (as substituted by Section 11 of the Merchant Shipping (Safety Convention) Act, 1952 (No. 29 of 1952), hereby make the following Rules :—

PART I. GENERAL.

1 Interpretation and Repeal.

1.—(1) These Rules may be cited as the Merchant Shipping (Life-Saving and Fire Appliances) Rules, 1953.

(2) In these Rules—

" buoyant apparatus " means flotation equipment (other than lifebuoys and lifejackets) designed to support persons who are in the water ;

" certified " means certified by a certificate issued under Section 274 of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894;

" Class A motor lifeboat " means a lifeboat complying with the requirements of paragraph (1) of Rule 21 of these Rules ;

" Class B motor lifeboat " means a lifeboat complying with the requirements of paragraph (2) of Rule 21 of these Rules ;

" crew space " means crew accommodation within the meaning of the Merchant Shipping (Crew Accommodation on Board Ship) Regulations, 1951 ( S.I. No. 95 of 1951 ) ;

" fishing boat " has the same meaning as in Section 370 of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894 ;

" length " in relation to a registered ship means registered length ;

" long international voyage " means an international voyage which is not a short international voyage within the meaning of the Merchant Shipping (Safety Convention) Act, 1952 ;

" mechanically propelled lifeboat " means a lifeboat (other than a motor lifeboat) complying with the requirements of Rule 23 of these Rules ;

" the Minister " means the Minister for Industry and Commerce ;

" passenger certificate " means a passenger steamer's certificate issued by the Minister pursuant to Section 274 of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894 ;

" passenger space " means space provided for the use of passengers ;

" passenger steamer " means a steamer carrying more than twelve passengers ;

" person " means a person over the age of one year ;

" portable fire extinguisher " in relation to a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher means a fire extinguisher with a capacity of not more than 15 lbs. of carbon dioxide and in relation to any other fire extinguisher means a fire extinguisher with a capacity of not more than 3 gallons of fluid ;

" steamer " includes a ship propelled by electricity or other mechanical power ;

" tanker " means a cargo ship constructed or adapted for the carriage in bulk of liquid cargoes of an inflammable nature ;

" tons " means gross tons.

(3) These Rules apply to ships registered in the State and to any other ship while she is within any port in the State, unless she would not have been in any such port but for stress of weather or any other circumstance that neither the master nor the owner nor the charterer (if any) of the ship could have prevented or forestalled.

(4) These Rules shall not apply to pleasure yachts which are not passenger steamers and do not exceed 15 tons burden.

(5) These Rules shall come into operation on the 19th day of November, 1953.

(6) The Merchant Shipping (Life-Saving Appliances) Rules, 1938, ( S. R. & O. No. 155 of 1938 ), and the Merchant Shipping (Life-Saving Appliances) (Amendment) Rules, 1947, ( S. R. & O. No. 267 of 1947 ), are hereby revoked.

2 Classification of Ships.

2. For the purposes of these Rules the ships to which these Rules apply shall be arranged in the following classes :—

PASSENGER SHIPS.

Class I.

Passenger steamers engaged on voyages any of which are long international voyages ;

Class II.

Passenger steamers engaged on voyages (not being long international voyages) any of which are short international voyages ;

Class III.

Passenger steamers engaged on voyages of any kind other than international voyages ;

Class IV.

Passenger steamers in respect of which there is in force a passenger certificate entitled " Passenger Certificate for a Home Trade passenger vessel plying on short excursions to sea, i.e., beyond partially smooth water limits, between 1st April and 31st October, inclusive, during daylight, and in fine weather " ;

Class V.

Passenger steamers in respect of which there is in force a passenger certificate entitled " Passenger Certificate for a vessel plying in partially smooth water " ;

Class VI.

Passenger steamers in respect of which there is in force a passenger certificate entitled " Passenger Certificate for a vessel plying in smooth water " ;

Class VII.

Steam launches and motor boats in respect of which there is in force a passenger certificate entitled " Passenger Certificate for a vessel plying for short distances to sea " ;

NON-PASSENGER SHIPS.

Class VIII.

Steamers (other than ships of Classes I, IX, XII, XIV and XVI) engaged on voyages any of which are long international voyages ;

Class IX.

Steamers engaged only in the whaling industry ;

Class X.

Steamers (other than ships of Classes II, XII, XIV and XVI engaged on voyages (not being long international voyages) any of which are short international voyages ;

Class XI.

Steamers (other than ships of Classes III to VII inclusive, XII, XIII, XIV and XVI) engaged only on voyages which are not international voyages ;

Class XII.

Tugs, tenders, launches, lighters, dredgers, barges, hoppers and hulks, (other than ships of Classes IV to VII inclusive, and XV) which proceed to sea and are employed within Home-trade limits ;

Class XIII.

Tugs, tenders, launches, lighters, dredgers, barges, hoppers and hulks, (other than ships of Classes IV to VII inclusive, and XV) which do not proceed to sea ;

Class XIV.

Fishing boats other than ships of Classes I to VII inclusive ;

Class XV.

Sailing ships other than fishing boats and ships of Class XVI, which proceed to sea ;

Class XVI.

Pleasure yachts other than ships of Classes I to VII inclusive exceeding 15 tons burden.

PART II. LIFEBOATS, BUOYANT APPARATUS, DAVITS, LIFEBUOYS, LIFE JACKETS, LINE-THROWING APPLIANCES, CERTIFICATED, LIFEBOATMEN, ETC.

3 Provision of Life-Saving Appliances.

3. All lifeboats and buoyant apparatus carried in compliance with these Rules shall comply with the following conditions :—

(a) They must be capable of being put into the water safely and rapidly even under unfavourable conditions of list and trim.

(b) They shall be so constructed that it is possible to effect embarkation into the lifeboats rapidly and in good order.

(c) The arrangement of each lifeboat and article of buoyant apparatus must be such that it will not interfere with the operation of other lifeboats and buoyant apparatus.

4 Ships of Class I.

4.—(1) This Rule applies to ships of Class I.

(2) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall, subject to the provisions of Rule 45 of these Rules, be fitted, in accordance with its length, with the number of sets of davits specified in column A of the table set out in the First Schedule to these Rules.

Provided that no ship shall be required to be fitted with a number of sets of davits greater than the number of lifeboats required to accommodate the total number of persons which the ship is certified to carry.

(3) A lifeboat shall be attached to every such set of davits.

(4) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall carry two boats attached to davits—one on each side of the ship—for use in an emergency. These boats shall not be more than 26 feet in length. They may be counted as lifeboats for the purposes of paragraph (5) of this Rule if they comply with the requirements of these Rules applying to lifeboats, except that in ships in which the requirements of paragraph (8) of Rule 33 of these Rules are met by means of appliances fitted to the sides of the lifeboats, such appliances shall not be required to be fitted to the two boats provided to meet the requirements of this Rule.

(5) Where the lifeboats carried in compliance with the foregoing provisions of this Rule will not accommodate the total number of persons which the ship is certified to carry, additional sets of davits with lifeboats attached shall be fitted as far as is practicable in the circumstances to make up the deficiency in such accommodation. If it is impracticable to fit such additional sets of davits, additional lifeboats, sufficient to make up the said deficiency shall be carried under each or any of the lifeboats attached to davits, but shall not be carried under the two emergency boats carried in compliance with paragraph (4) of this Rule.

(6) The lifeboats carried in compliance with this Rule shall be not less than 24 feet in length.

(7) Where the number of lifeboats carried in compliance with this Rule is 20 or more, two of such lifeboats shall be Class A motor lifeboats.

(8) Where the number of lifeboats carried in compliance with this Rule is more than 13 but less than 20, one of such lifeboats shall be a Class A motor lifeboat and a second of such lifeboats shall be either a Class A motor lifeboat or a Class B motor lifeboat or a mechanically propelled lifeboat.

(9) Where the number of lifeboats carried in compliance with this Rule is 13 or less, one of such lifeboats shall be a Class A motor lifeboat or a Class B motor lifeboat or a mechanically propelled lifeboat.

(10) Every Class A motor lifeboat carried in compliance with this Rule shall be fitted with radiotelegraph equipment, a searchlight and other electrical equipment in each case complying with the requirements of Rule 31 of these Rules.

(11) Every ship to which this Rule applies which does not carry two Class A motor lifeboats fitted with radiotelegraph equipment, a searchlight and other electrical equipment complying with the requirements of Rule 31 of these Rules shall carry portable radio-telegraph equipment which shall comply with the requirements of Rule 32 of these Rules.

(12) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall carry buoyant apparatus sufficient to support 25 per cent. of the total number of persons which the ship is certified to carry.

(13) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall carry at least the number of lifebuoys determined in accordance with the following table :—

Length of Ship in Feet.

Minimum Number of lifebuoys

Under 200

8

200 and under 400

12

400 and under 600

18

600 and under 800

24

800 and over

30

(14) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall carry one lifejacket for each person the ship is certified to carry.

(15) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall carry a line-throwing appliance.

5 Ships of Class II.

5.—(1) This Rule applies to ships of Class II.

(2) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall, subject to the provisions of Rule 45 of these Rules, be fitted, in accordance with its length, with the number of sets of davits specified in Column A of the table set out in the First Schedule to these Rules. Provided that no ship shall be required to be fitted with a number of sets of davits greater than the number of lifeboats required to accommodate the total number of persons which the ship is certified to carry.

(3) A lifeboat of not less than 24 feet in length shall be attached to each set of davits and the lifeboats so attached shall together provide at least the capacity specified in Column C of the table set out in the First Schedule to these Rules.

(4) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall carry two boats attached to davits—one on each side of the ship—for use in an emergency. These boats shall not be more than 26 feet in length. They may be counted as lifeboats for the purposes of paragraph (3) of this Rule if they comply with the requirements of these Rules applying to lifeboats, except that in ships in which the requirements of paragraph (8) of Rule 33 of these Rules are met by means of appliances fitted to the sides of the lifeboats, such appliances shall not be required to be fitted to the two boats provided to meet the requirements of this Rule.

(5) If in the opinion of the Minister the volume of traffic so requires, the Minister may permit any ship to which this Rule applies, being a ship which is subdivided in accordance with the requirements of Part III of the First Schedule to the Merchant Shipping (Construction) Rules, 1953 ( S.I. No. 339 of 1953 ), to carry persons in excess of the lifeboat capacity provided on board that ship in compliance with this Rule.

Provided, however, that if such a ship is permitted by the Minister, in pursuance of sub-section (6) of Section 26 of the Merchant Shipping (Safety Convention) Act, 1952 , to proceed to sea from a port in the State on an international voyage exceeding 600 nautical miles between the last port of call in the State and the final port of destination such ship shall carry lifeboats affording accommodation for 75 per cent. of the persons on board.

(6) Subject to the provisions of paragraph (5) of this Rule, where the lifeboats carried in compliance with paragraph (3) of this Rule will not accommodate the total number of persons which the ship is certified to carry, either additional lifeboats shall be carried under davits or buoyant apparatus shall be carried so that the total number of lifeboats together with such buoyant apparatus shall be sufficient for the total number of persons which the ship is certified to carry.

(7) Where the number of lifeboats carried in compliance with this Rule is 20 or more, two of such lifeboats shall be Class A motor lifeboats.

(8) Where the number of lifeboats carried in compliance with this Rule is more than 13 but less than 20, one of such lifeboats shall be a Class A motor lifeboat and a second shall be either a Class A motor lifeboat or a Class B motor lifeboat or a mechanically propelled lifeboat.

(9) Where the number of lifeboats carried in compliance with this Rule is 13 or less, one of such lifeboats shall be a Class A motor lifeboat or a Class B motor lifeboat or a mechanically propelled lifeboat.

(10) Every Class A motor lifeboat carried in compliance with this Rule shall be fitted with a radiotelegraph equipment, a searchlight and other electrical equipment, in each case complying with the requirements of Rule 31 of these Rules.

(11) Every ship to which this Rule applies which does not carry two Class A motor lifeboats fitted with radiotelegraph equipment, a searchlight and other electrical equipment complying with the requirements of Rule 31 of these Rules shall carry portable radiotelegraph equipment which shall comply with the requirements of Rule 32 of these Rules. Provided that in the case of any ship engaged on voyages of such duration that, in the opinion of the Minister, portable radiotelegraph equipment is unnecessary, he may allow this apparatus to be dispensed with.

(12) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall carry in addition to any buoyant apparatus carried in compliance with paragraph (6) of this Rule buoyant apparatus sufficient to support 10 per cent. of the total number of persons which the ship is certified to carry.

(13) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall carry at least the number of lifebuoys determined in accordance with the following table :—

Length of Ship in Feet

Minimum number of lifebuoys.

Under 200

8

200 and under 400

12

400 and under 600

18

600 and under 800

24

800 and over

30

(14) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall carry one lifejacket for each person the ship is certified to carry.

(15) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall carry a line-throwing appliance.

6 Ships of Class III.

6. Rule 5 of these Rules shall apply to ships of Class III as it applies to ships of Class II.

7 Ships of Class IV.

7.—(1) This Rule applies to ships of Class IV.

(2) Every ship to which this Rule applies, shall, subject to the provisions of Rule 45 of these Rules, be fitted with the number of sets of davits specified in the table set out in the Second Schedule to these Rules.

Provided that no ship shall be required to be fitted with a number of sets of davits greater than the number of lifeboats required to accommodate the total number of persons which the ship is certified to carry.

(3) A lifeboat shall be attached to every such set of davits.

(4) Such additional lifeboats, or such buoyant apparatus, shall be provided as shall be sufficient, together with the lifeboats requiredby paragraph (3) of this Rule, for 70 per cent. of the total number of persons which the ship is certified to carry.

(5) The lifeboats carried in compliance with this Rule shall, where reasonable and practicable, be not less than 20 feet in length.

(6) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall carry at least eight lifebuoys.

(7) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall carry one life-jacket for each person the ship is certified to carry.

(8) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall carry a line-throwing appliance.

8 Ships of Class V.

8.—(1) This Rule applies to ships of Class V.

(2) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall, subject to the provisions of Rule 45 of these Rules, be fitted with the number of sets of davits specified in the table set out in the Second Schedule to these Rules.

Provided that no ship shall be required to be fitted with a number of sets of davits greater than the number of lifeboats required to accommodate the total number of persons which the ship is certified to carry.

(3) A lifeboat shall be attached to each set of davits.

(4) Such additional lifeboats, or such buoyant apparatus, shall be provided as shall be sufficient, together with the lifeboats required by paragraph (3) of this Rule, for 60 per cent. of the total number of persons which the ship is certified to carry.

(5) If a ship to which this Rule applies is under 200 feet in length it shall carry at least four lifebuoys and if such a ship is 200 feet or over in length it shall carry at least eight lifebuoys.

(6) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall carry one life-jacket for each person the ship is certified to carry.

(7) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall carry a line-throwing appliance.

(8) The Minister may in his discretion relieve a ship to which this Rule applies wholly or partially from the provisions of this Rule.

9 Ships of Class VI.

9.—(1) This Rule applies to ships of Class VI.

(2) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall carry such lifeboats or buoyant apparatus as shall be sufficient, together with any boats required to be carried in compliance with paragraph (3) of this Rule, for 40 per cent. of the total number of persons which the ship is certified to carry.

(3) Every ship to which this Rule applies being a ship of 70 feet or over in length and under 150 feet in length, shall carry at least one boat, and if such a ship is 150 feet or over in length, at least two boats. The boats shall be attached to davits.

(4) If a ship to which this Rule applies is under 150 feet in length it shall carry at least four lifebuoys and if such a ship is 150 feet or over in length it shall carry at least six lifebuoys.

(5) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall carry one lifejacket for each person the ship is certified to carry, unless the boats, buoyant apparatus and lifebuoys carried in the ship are sufficient for the total number of persons which the ship is certified to carry.

(6) For the purposes of this Rule a lifebuoy shall be deemed sufficient to support two persons.

(7) The Minister may in his discretion relieve a ship to which this Rule applies wholly or partially from the provisions of this Rule.

10 Ships of Class VII.

10.—(1) This Rule applies to ships of Class VII.

(2) Rule 9 of these Rules shall apply to ships of Class VII being ships of 70 feet in length or over, as it applies to ships of Class VI.

(3) Every ship to which this Rule applies of less than 70 feet in length and plying not more than three nautical miles from its starting point in any direction shall be provided with buoyant apparatus sufficient to support at least 40 per cent. of the total number of persons which the ship is certified to carry, together with lifebuoys of a number not less than that specified in paragraph (5) of this Rule, so however that the buoyant apparatus, together with the lifebuoys, shall in all cases be sufficient to support at least 70 per cent. of the total number of persons which the ship is certified to carry.

(4) Every ship to which this Rule applies of less than 70 feet in length and plying more than three nautical miles from its starting point shall be provided with buoyant apparatus sufficient to support at least 60 per cent. of the total number of persons which the ship is certified to carry together with lifebuoys, of a number not less than that specified in paragraph (5) of this Rule, so however that the buoyant apparatus, together with the lifebuoys, shall in all cases be sufficient to support the total number of persons which the ship is certified to carry.

(5) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall carry at least the number of lifebuoys determined by the following table:—

Length of Ship

Minimum number of lifebuoys

Ships not over 30 feet in length

2

Ships over 30 feet and not over 35 feet

4

Ships over 35 feet and not over 40 feet

6

Ships over 40 feet and not over 50 feet

8

Ships over 50 feet and not over 70 feet

10

(6) For the purposes of this Rule a lifebuoy shall be deemed sufficient to support two persons.

(7) In the case of ships to which this Rule applies not exceeding 30 feet in length the Minister may allow lifebuoys to be carried in lieu of part or all of the buoyant apparatus required to be carried in pursuance of paragraphs (3) and (4) of this Rule.

(8) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall carry at least two buoyant smoke signals capable of giving off orange-coloured smoke.

11 Ships of Class VIII.

11.—(1) This Rule applies to ships of Class VIII.

(2) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall carry on each side of the ship lifeboats not less than 24 feet in length of such aggregate capacity as will accommodate all persons on board. In the case of tankers of 3,000 tons gross tonnage or upwards the number of such lifeboats on board shall not be less than four, two of which shall be carried aft and two amidships.

(3) Such lifeboats shall be attached to davits.

(4) In every ship to which this Rule applies of 1,600 tons gross tonnage or over, one of the lifeboats carried in compliance with paragraph (2) of this Rule shall be a Class A motor lifeboat or a Class B motor lifeboat or a mechanically propelled lifeboat.

(5) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall carry portable radiotelegraph equipment which shall comply with the requirements of Rule 32 of these Rules.

(6) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall carry at least eight lifebuoys, together with one lifejacket for each person on board.

(7) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall carry a line-throwing appliance.

12 Ships of Class IX.

12.—(1) Subject to the provisions of paragraph (2) of this Rule, Rule 11 of these Rules shall apply to ships of Class IX as it applies to ships of Class VIII.

(2) Every ship employed as a whale factory ship and any ship engaged in the carriage of persons employed in the whaling industry shall carry lifeboats attached to davits on each side of the ship of such aggregate capacity as will accommodate every member of the crew engaged to work the ship. In addition, every such ship shall carry lifeboats of an aggregate capacity sufficient to accommodate the total number of additional persons which the ship carries. Theseadditional lifeboats shall, where practicable, be attached to davits. If not attached to davits, they shall be stowed under lifeboats attached to davits.

13 Ships of Class X.

13.—(1) Rule 11 of these Rules shall apply to ships of Class X, of 500 tons gross tonnage or over, as it applies to ships of Class VIII. Provided that, in the case of any ship engaged on voyages of such duration that, in the opinion of the Minister, portable radiotelegraph equipment is unnecessary, he may allow such equipment to be dispensed with.

(2) Rule 14 of these Rules shall apply to ships of Class X, of under 500 tons gross tonnage, as it applies to ships of Class XI.

14 Ships of Class XI.

14.—(1) This Rule applies to ships of Class XI.

(2) Every ship to which this Rule applies of 100 feet or over in length shall carry on each side of the ship one or more lifeboats of sufficient aggregate capacity to accommodate all persons on board. Such lifeboats shall be attached to davits.

(3) Every ship to which this Rule applies of under 100 feet in length shall carry one or more lifeboats so stowed that they can be readily placed in the water on either side of the ship, and of sufficient aggregate capacity to accommodate all persons on board.

(4) Every ship to which this Rule applies of 100 feet or over in length shall carry at least eight lifebuoys. If under 100 feet in length the ship shall carry at least one lifebuoy for each two members of the crew, provided that in no case shall the number of such lifebuoys in any such ship be less than two.

(5) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall carry one lifejacket for each person on board.

(6) Every ship to which this Rule applies of 50 feet or over in length shall carry a line-throwing appliance.

15 Ships of Class XII.

15.—(1) Rule 13 of these Rules shall apply to ships of Class XII, being ships of 500 tons gross tonnage or over, engaged on an international voyage, as it applies to ships of Class X.

(2) Rule 14 of these Rules shall apply to every other ship to which this Rule applies as it applies to ships of Class XI.

16 Ships of Class XIII.

16.—(1) This Rule applies to ships of Class XIII.

(2) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall carry two lifebuoys, and a lifeboat or other boat in either case sufficient to accommodate all persons on board.

(3) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall carry one lifejacket for each person on board.

17 Ships of Class XIV.

17.—(1) This Rule applies to ships of Class XIV.

(2) Every ship to which this Rule applies of 145 feet in length or over shall carry at least two lifeboats, one on each side of the ship, each lifeboat being attached to davits. The lifeboats on each side of the ship shall be of sufficient capacity to accommodate all persons on board. At least four lifebuoys shall be carried.

(3) Every ship to which this Rule applies of under 145 feet in length but not under 100 feet in length shall carry a lifeboat of sufficient capacity to accommodate all persons on board, so stowed that it can readily be placed in the water on either side of the ship. Every such ship shall also carry buoyant apparatus sufficient to support all persons on board. At least four lifebuoys shall be carried.

(4) Every ship to which this Rule applies of under 100 feet in length but not under 70 feet in length shall carry a lifeboat of sufficient capacity to accommodate all persons on board, so stowed that it can readily be placed in the water on either side of the ship. At least two lifebuoys shall be carried.

(5) (a) Every ship to which this Rule applies of under 70 feet in length but not under 40 feet in length which proceeds on a voyage north of latitude 61° N. or south of latitude 48° 30" N. or west of longitude 12° W. shall carry a boat so stowed that it can readily be placed in the water. Every such ship shall also carry buoyant apparatus sufficient to support all persons on board. Two lifebuoys shall be carried.

(b) Every ship to which this Rule applies of under 70 feet in length but not under 40 feet in length which proceeds only on voyages which do not extend north of latitude 61° N. or south of latitude 48° 30" N. or west of longitude 12° W. shall carry buoyant apparatus sufficient to support all persons on board. Two lifebuoys shall be carried.

(6) Every ship to which this Rule applies of under 40 feet in length shall carry two lifebuoys.

(7) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall carry one lifejacket for each person on board.

(8) Every ship to which this Rule applies of 50 feet or over in length shall carry a line-throwing appliance.

18 Ships of Class XV.

18.—(1) This Rule applies to ships of Class XV.

(2) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall carry one or more lifeboats or boats of sufficient aggregate capacity to accommodate all persons on board.

(3) The lifeboats shall be attached to davits.

(4) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall carry at least four lifebuoys.

(5) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall carry one lifejacket for each person on board.

(6) Every ship to which this Rule applies of 50 feet or over in length shall carry a line-throwing appliance.

19 Ships of Class XVI.

19.—(1) This Rule applies to ships of Class XVI.

(2) Every ship to which this Rule applies of 70 feet in length and over shall carry a boat or boats of sufficient capacity to accommodate all persons on board. Such boat or boats shall be so stowed as to be capable of being readily placed in the water on either side of the ship, and unless they are lifeboats complying with the specification set forth in Rule 20 of these Rules and the Third Schedule to these Rules, the ship shall carry buoyant apparatus sufficient to support all persons on board.

(3) Every ship to which this Rule applies of under 70 feet in length shall carry buoyant apparatus sufficient to support all persons on board. Provided that lifebuoys may be substituted for buoyant apparatus on the basis of one lifebuoy for each two persons on board.

(4) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall carry at least two lifebuoys.

(5) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall carry one lifejacket for each person on board.

REQUIREMENTS FOR LIFEBOATS, BUOYANT APPARATUS AND OTHER LIFE-SAVING APPLIANCES.

20 General requirements for Lifeboats.

20.—(1) All lifeboats carried in compliance with these Rules shall be open boats constructed with rigid sides and shall be fitted with internal buoyancy appliances. All lifeboats shall comply with the provisions of the Third Schedule to these Rules, and shall be of such form and proportions that they shall have ample stability in a seaway,and sufficient freeboard when loaded with their full complement of persons and equipment.

(2) All lifeboats shall be properly constructed for the purpose for which they are intended and shall be of sufficient strength to permit their being safely lowered into the water when loaded with a full complement of persons and equipment.

(3) In all lifeboats all thwart and side seats shall be fitted as low in the boat as practicable, and bottom boards shall be fitted so that the thwarts shall not be more than 2 feet 9 inches above them.

(4) No lifeboat carried in compliance with these Rules shall be less than 16 feet in length.

(5) The weight of a lifeboat when fully laden with persons (calculated at 165 lbs. per person) and equipment shall not exceed 20 tons.

21 General requirements for Motor Lifeboats.

21.—(1) Subject to paragraph (3) of this Rule, every Class A motor lifeboat carried in compliance with these Rules shall comply with the following requirements:—

(a) It shall be fitted with a compression ignition engine which shall comply with the provisions of Part I of the Fourth Schedule to these Rules.

(b) It shall be provided with fuel sufficient for 24 hours continuous operation.

(c) It shall be capable of going astern.

(d) The speed ahead shall be at least six knots in smooth water when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment.

(2) Every Class B motor lifeboat carried in compliance with these Rules shall comply with the following requirements:—

(a) It shall be fitted with an internal combustion engine which shall comply with the provisions of Part II of the Fourth Schedule to these Rules.

(b) It shall be adequately provided with fuel.

(c) It shall be capable of going astern.

(d) The speed ahead shall be at least four knots in smooth water when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment.

(3) A Class A motor lifeboat may be carried in place of a Class B motor lifeboat or a mechanically propelled lifeboat, and in that event, its fuel supply shall be required to comply only with the requirement of paragraph 2 (b) of this Rule.

22 Internal buoyancy appliances.

22.—(1) The volume of the internal buoyancy appliances of a motor lifeboat shall be at least equal to that of the buoyancy appliances which would be required under these Rules if the lifeboat were not a motor lifeboat and shall be increased above that volume to the extent that such increase is necessary to compensate for the difference between (a) the weight of the motor and accessories, and if fitted, the searchlight and the radiotelegraph equipment and their accessories, and (b) the weight of the additional persons which the lifeboat could accommodate if the motor and its accessories, and if fitted, the searchlight and the radiotelegraph equipment and their accessories were removed.

The volume of the internal buoyancy appliances of a mechanically propelled lifeboat (other than a motor lifeboat) shall similarly be increased to compensate for the weight of the propelling gear.

(2) In the case of lifeboats which accommodate 100 or more persons the volume of the buoyancy appliances shall be increased beyond the volume required by paragraph (1) of this Rule to such extent as will ensure the seaworthiness of the lifeboat.

23 General requirements for a Mechanically Propelled Lifeboat.

23. Every mechanically propelled lifeboat carried in compliance with these Rules shall comply with the provisions of the Fifth Schedule to these Rules.

24 Carrying capacity of Lifeboats.

24.—(1) Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2 of this Rule, the number of persons which a lifeboat shall be deemed fit to carry shall be equal to the greatest whole number obtained by dividing by ten the capacity of the boat in cubic feet, determined in accordance with the provisions of the Third Schedule to these Rules.

(2) The number of persons which a lifeboat is deemed fit to carry shall not exceed the number of adult persons wearing lifejackets for which there is proper seating accommodation arranged in such a way that the persons when seated do not interfere in any way with the use of the oars.

25 Buoyant Apparatus.

25.—(1) Buoyant apparatus shall comply with the provisions of the Ninth Schedule to these Rules. All buoyant apparatus carried in compliance with these Rules shall be of such construction that it retains its shape and properties when exposed to the weather on board ship and when in the water. It shall be constructed so as not to require adjustment prior to use.

(2) Buoyant apparatus shall be deemed fit to carry a number of persons—

(a) ascertained by dividing by 32 the number of pounds of iron which the apparatus is capable of supporting from its grab lines in fresh water, or

(b) equal to the extent of the perimeter of the apparatus in feet whichever number shall be the less.

26 Marking of Lifeboats and Buoyant Apparatus.

26.—(1) The dimensions of a lifeboat and the number of persons which it is fit to carry shall be clearly marked on it in permanent characters. The name of the ship to which the lifeboat belongs shall be painted on the bows.

(2) The numbers of persons which buoyant apparatus is fit to support shall be clearly marked on the apparatus in permanent characters.

27 Equipment of Lifeboats.

27.—(1) Subject to the provisions of this Rule, the equipment of every lifeboat carried in a ship of Classes I, II, III, IV, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIV and XV shall be as follows :—

(a) a single banked complement of oars, two spare oars, and a steering oar ; one set and a half of crutches, attached to the lifeboat by lanyard or chain ; a boat hook ;

(b) two plugs for each plug hole (except when proper automatic valves are fitted) attached to the lifeboat by lanyards or chains ; a baler, and two buckets ;

(c) a rudder attached to the lifeboat and a tiller ;

(d) a life line becketed round the outside of the lifeboat ;

(e) a locker suitable for stowage of small items of equipment ;

(f) two hatchets, one at each end of the lifeboat ;

(g) a lamp, with oil sufficient for 12 hours ;

(h) a watertight box containing two boxes of matches not readily extinguished by wind ;

(i) a mast or masts, with galvanised wire stays together with orange coloured sails which shall be marked for identification purposes with the first and last letter of the name of the ship to which the lifeboat belongs ;

(j) a compass in binnacle complying with the provisions of Part I of the Sixth Schedule to these Rules ;

(k) a sea anchor complying with the provisions of Part II of the Sixth Schedule to these Rules ;

(l) two painters of sufficient length and size. One shall be secured to the forward end of the lifeboat with strop and toggle so that it can be released, and the other shall be firmly secured to the stem of the lifeboat and be ready for use ;

(m) a vessel containing one gallon of vegetable, fish or animal oil. A means shall be provided to enable the oil to be easily distributed on the water, and shall be so arranged that it can be attached to the sea anchor ;

(n) two parachute signals complying with the provisions of Part V of the Sixth Schedule to these Rules, and six hand flares capable of giving a bright red light ;

(o) two buoyant smoke signals capable of giving off orange-coloured smoke ;

(p) means to enable persons to cling to the lifeboat, if upturned, in the form of bilge keels or keel rails, together with grab lines secured from gunwale to gunwale under the keel ;

(q) a first aid outfit complying with the provisions of Part III of the Sixth Schedule to these Rules ;

(r) an electric torch suitable for morse-signalling, together with two spare batteries and two spare bulbs ;

(s) a daylight-signalling mirror ;

(t) a jack-knife fitted with a tin opener to be kept attached to the lifeboat with a lanyard ;

(u) two light buoyant heaving lines ; and

(v) a manual pump complying with the provisions of Part IV of the Sixth Schedule to these Rules.

(2) In ships of Class XIV, the lifeboats shall not be required to carry the equipment specified in sub-paragraph (s) of paragraph (1) of this Rule.

(3) In ships of Classes II, III, X and XI, ships of Class XIV which do not proceed north of latitude 61° N. or south of latitude 48° 30" N. or west of longitude 12° W., and ships of Class XV which do not proceed outside Home-trade limits, the lifeboats shall not be required to carry the equipment specified in sub-paragraphs (i) and (s) of paragraph (1) of this Rule.

(4) In ships of Classes IV and V, the lifeboats shall not be required to carry the equipment specified in sub-paragraphs (i), (j), (m), (n), (o) and (s) of paragraph (1) of this Rule.

(5) In ships of Class XII, the lifeboats or boats shall not be required to carry the equipment specified in sub-paragraphs (i), (j), (m), (o) and (s) of paragraph (1) of this Rule.

(6) The equipment of every lifeboat or boat carried in ships of Classes VI and XIII, shall be as follows :—

(a) a single banked complement of oars, a steering oar, one set of crutches attached to the lifeboat or boat by lanyard or chain ; a boat hook ;

(b) two plugs for each plug hole ;

(c) a rudder attached to the lifeboat or boat and a tiller ;

(d) a life line becketed round the outside of the lifeboat or boat ;

(e) a painter of sufficient length and size ;

(f) a baler.

(7) The equipment of every lifeboat or boat carried in ships of Class VII shall be as follows:—

(a) a single banked complement of oars, a steering oar, one set of crutches attached to the lifeboat or boat by lanyard or chain ; a boat hook ;

(b) two plugs for each plug hole ;

(c) a rudder attached to the lifeboat or boat and a tiller ;

(d) a life line becketed round the outside of the lifeboat or boat ;

(e) a painter of sufficient length and size ;

(f) a baler ;

(g) a hatchet ;

(h) a sea anchor complying with the provisions of Part II of the Sixth Schedule to these Rules.

(8) The equipment of every lifeboat or boat carried in ships of Class XVI shall be as follows:—

(a) four oars, with crutches ; a boat hook ;

(b) two plugs for each plug hole ;

(c) a rudder attached to the boat and a tiller ;

(d) a life line becketed round the outside of the lifeboat or boat ;

(e) a painter ;

(f) a bucket and a baler ;

(g) a sea anchor complying with the provisions of Part II of the Sixth Schedule to these Rules ;

(h) six hand flares capable of giving a bright red light ;

(i) an electric torch suitable for morse-signalling, together with two spare batteries and two spare bulbs.

(9) No motor lifeboat or mechanically propelled lifeboat shall be required to carry a mast or sails or more than half the complement of oars. Every such lifeboat shall carry two boat hooks.

(10) Every motor lifeboat shall carry two portable fire extinguishers capable of discharging froth, or other substance suitable for quenching oil fires, a receptacle containing a sufficient quantity of sand and a scoop for distributing the sand.

28 Lifeboats fit to carry more than 60 persons.

28. No lifeboat shall be deemed fit to carry more than 60 persons unless :—

(a) it is a motor lifeboat or a mechanically propelled lifeboat ; and

(b) it is fitted with means to enable persons in the water to climb into the lifeboat.

29 Security of Lifeboat Equipment.

29. All items of lifeboat equipment not kept in the lifeboat locker, with the exception of the boat hook which shall be kept free for fending off purposes, shall be lightly lashed within the lifeboat. The lashing shall be carried out in such a manner as to ensure the security of the equipment and so as not to interfere with the lifting hooks or to prevent ready loading of, or to impede ready entry into, the lifeboat.

30 Rations.

30.—(1) Every lifeboat or other boat carried in compliance with these Rules, except by a ship of Classes VI, VII, XIII or XVI, shallbe provided with at least the rations specified in the following scale for each person it is fit to carry :—

(a) 3 quarts of fresh water, the quantity to be increased as far as is practicable ;

(b) 16ozs. of biscuits ;

(c) 16ozs. of barley sugar ;

(d) 16 ozs. of sweetened condensed milk of first quality.

Provided however that the rations specified in sub-paragraphs (b), (c) and (d) of this paragraph shall not be required to be carried in a ship of Classes II, III, IV, V, X, XI, or XII, in a ship of Class XIV, which does not proceed north of latitude 61° N. or south of latitude 48° 30" N. or west of longitude 12° W., or in a ship of Class XV which does not proceed outside Home-trade limits.

(2) The water shall be kept in the lifeboat in suitable containers and there shall be provided at least one dipper, which shall be attached to the container by a lanyard, and three rust-proof drinking vessels (one graduated in ½, 1 and 2 ozs.). The water shall be frequently changed so as to ensure that it is always clean and fit for drinking.

(3) All the foods specified shall be packed in suitable watertight containers, labelled to indicate the contents and shall be stowed in watertight tanks.

31 Radiotelegraph and other Electrical Equipment in Motor Lifeboats.

31.—(1) The radiotelegraph equipment to be carried in a Class A motor lifeboat in compliance with paragraph (10) of Rule 4 or paragraph (10) of Rule 5 of these Rules in addition to complying with such of the requirements of the Merchant Shipping (Radio) Rules, 1953, as apply thereto shall comply with the following requirements :—

(a) The radiotelegraph equipment shall be installed in a cabin large enough to accommodate both the apparatus and the person using it.

(b) The arrangements shall be such that the efficient operation of the transmitter and receiver shall not be interfered with by the motor lifeboat engine, whether a battery is on charge or not.

(c) The radiotelegraph battery shall not be used to supply power to any engine-starting motor or ignition system.

(2) The motor lifeboat engine shall be fitted with a dynamo capable of recharging all batteries in the lifeboat.

(3) The motor lifeboat shall be provided with a searchlight which shall include a lamp of at least 80 watts, an efficient reflector and a source of power which will give effective illumination of a light-coloured object having a width of about 60 feet at a distance of 200 yards for a total period of six hours. The searchlight shall be capable of working for at least three hours continuously.

32 Portable Radiotelegraph Equipment.

32. The portable radiotelegraph equipment required to be carried by paragraph (11) of Rule 4, paragraph (11) of Rule 5, paragraph (5) of Rule 11 or paragraph (1) of Rule 13 of these Rules shall comply with such of the requirements of the Merchant Shipping (Radio) Rules, 1953, as apply thereto, and shall be kept in the chart room of the ship or other suitable place, ready to be moved into a lifeboat in case of emergency.

33 Stowage and Handling of Lifeboats and Buoyant Apparatus.

33.—(1) All lifeboats attached to davits and all lifeboats stowed under lifeboats attached to davits shall be stowed in such a way that :—

(a) they can be launched in the shortest possible time ;

(b) they will not impede in any way the rapid handling of any other lifeboats or of any buoyant apparatus, or the marshalling of the persons on board at the launching stations, or their embarkation ; and

(c) even under conditions of list and trim unfavourable for the handling of the lifeboats, as large a number of persons as possible can be embarked in them.

(2) In passenger steamers not more than one lifeboat shall be served by a single set of davits, provided that in any ship in which this arrangement is impracticable, the lifeboats may, subject to the provisions of paragraph (1) of this Rule, be stowed one above the other, or, if the Minister permits in the case of any ship and subject to such conditions as he may impose, they may be fitted one within another.

(3) If in a passenger steamer a lifeboat is stowed underneath another lifeboat there shall be provided removable supports or other appliances to secure that the weight of the upper lifeboat is not unduly supported by the lifeboat underneath it.

(4) Lifeboats may only be stowed on more than one deck on condition that proper measures are taken to prevent lifeboats on a lower deck being fouled by those stowed on a deck above.

(5) Lifeboats shall be stored in such positions as to ensure safe launching. They shall not be placed in the bows of a ship.

(6) (a) Davits shall comply with the provisions of the Eighth Schedule to these Rules and shall be suitably placed.

(b) In ships over 150 feet in length of Classes I, II, III, IV, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII and XIV the davits shall be of the following types :—

(i) Luffing or gravity type for operating lifeboats weighing not more than four tons in their turning out condition.

(ii) Gravity type for operating lifeboats weighing more than four tons in their turning out condition.

(c) In all ships of 150 feet in length and under, if radial type davits are provided they shall be fitted with means to prevent them from being jerked from their sockets.

(7) In ships of Classes I, II, III, IV, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIV and XV, the davits, falls, blocks and all other gear shall be of such strength that the lifeboats can be safely lowered when fully loaded with persons and equipment, with the ship listed to 15 degrees either way.

(8) In ships in which the boat deck is more than 15 feet above the load line indicating the deepest submersion of the ship permitted by the Merchant Shipping (Safety and Load Line Conventions) Act 1933 , (No. 42 of 1933), arrangements shall be made to facilitate launching the lifeboats against an adverse list.

(9) (a) In ships of Classes I, II, VIII, IX and X, the lifeboats shall be served by wire rope falls and by winches, provided that the Minister may allow other types of falls to be fitted to any emergency boat carried in compliance with paragraph (4) of Rule 4 or paragraph (4) of Rule 5 of these Rules, and in ships where, having regard to the height of the boat deck above the lightest sea-going draught or to other circumstances, he is satisfied that such other falls are adequate.

(b) In ships of Classes III, IV, XI and XII, wire rope falls, together with winches, shall be fitted for operating lifeboats weighing more than four tons in fully loaded condition.

(10) Two life lines shall be fitted to the davit spans of all lifeboats and the falls and life lines shall be long enough to reach the water with the ship at her lightest sea-going draught and listed to 15 degrees either way. Lower fall blocks shall be fitted with a suitable ring or long link for attaching to the sling hooks unless disengaging gear complying with the provisions of the Seventh Schedule to these Rules is fitted.

(11) Lifeboats attached to davits shall have the falls ready for service, and means shall be provided for speedily detaching the boats from the falls. The points of attachment of the lifeboats to the falls shall be so situated as to ensure that the lifeboats can be easily swung clear of the davits.

(12) Where more than one lifeboat is served by the same set of davits, separate falls shall be provided to serve each lifeboat, unless the falls are of wire rope. The appliances used shall be such as to ensure lowering the boats rapidly and in turn. Where power appliances are fitted for the recovery of the falls, efficient hand gear shall also be provided.

34 Lifejackets.

34.—(1) Every lifejacket carried in compliance with these Rules shall be capable of being fitted on the body and shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of the Eleventh Schedule to these Rules.

(2) Every lifejacket shall be reversible, so that if it is worn back-to-front or inside out, it will satisfy the requirements of sub-paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of paragraph (3) of this Rule.

(3) The distribution of buoyancy in a lifejacket shall be such as to ensure that when worn by a person in the water it will comply with the following conditions :—

(a) when the wearer is inert the position of the body shall be as near the vertical as possible ;

(b) when the wearer is inert his head shall be kept clear of the water ; and

(c) the head shall be so supported that if the wearer becomes unconscious it cannot fall forward and the face become submerged.

(4) Every lifejacket shall be suitable for both children or adults.

(5) The buoyancy of lifejackets shall not depend on air compartments.

35 Lifebuoys.

35.—(1) Every lifebuoy carried in compliance with these Rules shall be constructed of cork, evenly formed and securely plugged, or other equally efficient buoyant material, and shall be capable of floating in fresh water for at least 24 hours with 32 lb. of iron suspended from it.

(2) Lifebuoys shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of the Tenth Schedule to these Rules.

(3) Lifebuoys shall not be filled with rushes, cork shavings, granulated cork or any other loose granulated material, and their buoyancy shall not depend upon air compartments requiring inflation.

36 Lifebuoy Lights and Lines.

36.—(1) Subject to the provisions of paragraphs (2), (3) and (4) or this Rule, at least half the lifebuoys, and in no event less than two, carried in a ship to which these Rules apply shall be provided with self-igniting lights which cannot be extinguished in water. In ships of Classes I, II or III the number of lights so provided shall not be less than six. In tankers the lights shall be electrically operated.

(2) In ships of Classes V and VI (except ships which are engaged in daylight voyages only) two lifebuoys (one on each side of the ship) shall be provided with self-igniting lights.

(3) In ships of Class XVI one lifebuoy shall be provided with a self-igniting light.

(4) In ships of Classes IV or VII lifebuoys need not be provided with self-igniting lights.

(5) In every ship to which these Rules apply one lifebuoy on each side of the ship shall be fitted with a line at least 15 fathoms in length.

37 Stowage of Lifebuoys and Lifejackets.

37.—(1) Lifebuoys and lifejackets shall be so stowed so as to be readily accessible to all persons on board. The position of lifejackets shall be clearly and permanently indicated.

(2) Lifebuoys shall always be capable of being rapidly cast loose.

38 Line-Throwing Appliances.

38.—(1)(a) In ships of Classes I, II, III, IV, V, VIII and IX and ships of Classes X, XI, XII, XIV and XV of 75 feet or over in length, a line-throwing appliance shall be provided consisting of an apparatus conforming with the provisions of paragraphs (2), (3) and (4) of this Rule, and capable of throwing a line ½ inch in circumference a minimum distance of 250 yards in calm weather.

(b) In ships of Classes X, XI, XII, XIV and XV under 75 feet in length, but not under 50 feet in length, a line throwingappliance shall be provided consisting of an apparatus conforming with the provisions of paragraphs (2), (3) and (4) of this Rule, and be capable of throwing a line ½ inch in circumference a minimum distance of 200 yards in calm weather.

(2) The apparatus shall include 4 rockets and 4 lines, each line being ½ inch in circumference and of suitable length, and having a breaking strain of not less than 250 lb.

(3) All line-throwing appliances shall be capable of throwing the line in such a manner that the lateral deflection of the line on either side of the direction of firing does not exceed 10 per cent. of the length of flight of the rocket.

(4) The lines and the rockets, with means of igniting them, shall be kept in a watertight case.

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS.

39 Embarkation in the Lifeboats.

39.—(1) In every ship of Classes I, II, III, IV, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII and XV one ladder shall be carried at each set of davits. The ladders shall be of sufficient length to reach the water line with the ship at her lightest sea-going draught and listed to 15 degrees either way.

(2) In every ship arrangements shall be made for warning the passengers and crew when the ship is about to be abandoned.

(3) Every ship of Classes I, II, III, IV, VIII, IX, X, XI, and XII shall be provided with means situated outside the engine room whereby any discharge of water into the lifeboats can be prevented.

40 Electrically Operated Signals.

40. Every ship of Class I shall be provided throughout the ship with electrically operated signals controlled from the bridge for summoning passengers to muster stations.

41 ..

41.—(1) In every ship of Classes I, II and III an electric lighting system shall be provided throughout the ship and in particular upon the decks on which the lifeboats are stowed. Provision shall also be made in every such ship for the electric lighting of the launching gear and of the lifeboats in process of and immediately after being launched. The lighting shall be operated from the ship's main generating plant and so arranged that power may be supplied from the emergency source of power referred to in Rule 36 of the Merchant Shipping (Construction) Rules, 1953.

(2) In every ship of Classes I, II and III the exit from every main compartment occupied by passengers or crew shall be continuously lighted by an emergency electric lamp, operated from the ship's main generating plant and so arranged that power may besupplied from the emergency source of power referred to in Rule 36 of the Merchant Shipping (Construction) Rules, 1953.

(3) In every ship of Classes VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, XIV and XV means shall be provided for the electric lighting of the launching gear and lifeboats during the process of launching.

42 Certificated Lifeboatmen.

42.—(1) The crew of every ship of Classes I, II, III and IV shall include, for each lifeboat carried in compliance with these Rules, a number of certificated lifeboatmen not less than that specified in the following table :—

Prescribed complement of lifeboat

Minimum Number of Certificated Lifeboatmen

Less than 41 persons

2

From 41 to 61 persons

3

From 62 to 85 persons

4

More than 85 persons

5

(2) An applicant for a lifeboatman's certificate shall be at least 18 years of age and shall submit himself for examination at such time and place as may be directed by the Minister who, on being satisfied that he has had sufficient service at sea and has been trained in all the operations connected with launching lifeboats and the use of oars ; that he is acquainted with the practical handling of the boats themselves, and, further, that he is capable of understanding and answering the orders relative to lifeboat service, may issue a certificate to him.

(3) For the purpose of this Rule

" Certificated lifeboatman " means any member of the crew who holds a certificate issued by or under the authority of the Minister in accordance with the conditions laid down in paragraph (2) of this Rule ;

" Prescribed complement " means the number of persons which a boat is fit to carry under these Rules.

43 Manning of Lifeboats.

43.—(1) In every ship of Classes I, II, III and IV a deck officer or certificated lifeboatman shall be placed in charge of each lifeboat and a second in command shall also be nominated. The person in charge shall have a list of the lifeboat's crew, and shall see that the men placed under his orders are acquainted with their several duties.

(2) In every ship of Classes I, II and III a man capable of working the radiotelegraph and searchlight equipment shall be assigned to each lifeboat carrying such equipment.

(3) In every ship of Classes I, II, III, VIII, IX and X a man capable of working the motor shall be assigned to each motor lifeboat.

44 Ships' Distress Rocket Signals.

44.—(1) Every ship of Classes I, II, III, IV, VIII, IX, and X and every ship of 50 feet in length and over of Classes XI, XII, XIV and XV shall be provided with not less than 12 parachute distress rocket signals which shall comply with the provisions of the Twelfth Schedule to these Rules.

(2) Every ship of Class V, and every ship of less than 50 feet in length of Classes XI, XII, XIV and XV and every ship of Class XVI shall be provided with not less than 12 pyrotechnic distress signals which shall be either parachute signals of a type which complies with the provisions of the Twelfth Schedule to these Rules or red hand flares capable of emitting five red stars into the air to a height of not less than 150 feet.

(3) All pyrotechnic distress signals shall be packed in a watertight container and shall be clearly and indelibly labelled to indicate their purpose.

45 Equivalents and Exemptions.

45.—(1) Where Part II of these Rules requires that a particular fitting, appliance or apparatus, or type thereof, shall be fitted or carried in a ship, or that any particular provision shall be made, the Minister may allow any other fitting appliance or apparatus or type thereof, to be fitted or carried, or any other provision to be made in that ship if he is satisfied that such other fitting, appliance or apparatus, or type thereof, or provision, is at least as effective as that required by these Rules.

(2) If it appears to the Minister, on the application of the owner of any ship, that it is not practicable or reasonable to fit in that ship the number of sets of davits required by these Rules, he may allow one or more sets of davits to be dispensed with in that ship subject to such conditions, if any, as he thinks fit.

Provided that, in the case of a ship of Classes I, II and III the number of sets of davits fitted shall in no case be less than the minimum number determined by Column B of the table in the First Schedule to these Rules.

(3) If a ship of Class I is permitted by the terms of her passenger certificate to carry, between specified ports or places abroad, a number of passengers in addition to the number allowed when the ship is proceeding to sea from the State, the Minister may, subject to such conditions as he thinks fit, allow as regards the part of the voyage between such specified ports or places, modifications of the provisions of paragraphs (5) and (12) of Rule 4 of these Rules (which relate respectively to lifeboats and buoyant apparatus).

Provided that in no case shall the aggregate capacity of lifeboats, or the provision of buoyant apparatus on that part of the voyage be less than would be required under paragraph (6) and (12) of Rule 5 of these Rules if the ship were a ship of Class II.

(4) The Minister may exempt any ship not normally engaged on international voyages but which, in exceptional circumstances, is required to undertake a single international voyage from any of the requirements of Part II of these Rules, provided that it complies with safety requirements which in his opinion are adequate for the voyage which is to be undertaken by the ship.

(5) If it is impracticable for a ship to carry a lifeboat of the minimum length prescribed by these Rules, the Minister may allow a smaller boat to be carried by that ship.

(6) The Minister may, on such conditions as he thinks fit, exempt any ship constructed before the coming into operation of these Rules, from any of the requirements of Part II of these Rules if he is satisfied that compliance with that requirement is either impracticable or unreasonable in the case of that ship.

PART III. FIRE APPLIANCES.

SHIPS OF CLASS I.

46 Fire Patrol, Alarm and Detection Systems.

46.—(1) In every ship of Class I an efficient patrol system shall be maintained so that any outbreak of fire may be promptly detected. Manual fire alarms shall be fitted throughout the passenger spaces and crew spaces which will enable the fire patrol to give an alarm immediately to the bridge or fire control station.

(2) In every ship of Class I a fire alarm or fire detection system shall be provided which will be capable of indicating, at one or more points in the ship so as to come rapidly to the notice of the master and crew, the presence and position of fire in any part of the ship which is inaccessible to the fire patrol.

(3) The Minister may exempt any ship from the requirements of paragraph (2) of this Rule if he is satisfied that to require compliance therewith would be unreasonable on account of the short duration of the voyages on which the ship is engaged.

47 Passenger and Crew Spaces.

47. Every ship of Class I shall be provided with appliances whereby at least two powerful jets of water can be rapidly and simultaneously directed upon any part of the passenger spaces and crew spaces whenall watertight doors and all doors in the bulkheads constructed in compliance with paragraph (2) of Rule 45 of the Merchant Shipping (Construction) Rules, 1953 are closed. In addition, on each deck in each of these spaces there shall be provided at least two portable fluid fire extingushers. When passengers are carried in enclosed spaces above the bulkhead deck there shall be at least one such extinguisher on each side of the ship in such spaces.

48 Cargo spaces and Store Rooms.

48.—(1) Every ship of Class I shall be provided with appliances whereby at least two powerful jets of water can be rapidly and simultaneously directed into any cargo space or store room.

(2) Every ship of Class I of 1,000 tons or over shall be provided with appliances whereby fire-smothering gas can be rapidly conveyed by a permanent piping system into any compartment appropriated for the carriage of cargo. The volume of free gas shall be at least equal to 30 per cent. of the gross volume of the largest hold in the ship which is capable of being effectively closed. Provided that steam may be substituted for fire-smothering gas in any ship in which there are available boilers capable of evaporating 1 lb. of steam per hour for each 12 cubic feet of the gross volume of the largest hold in the ship.

(3) The Minister may exempt any ship from the requirements of paragraph (2) of this Rule if he is satisfied that to require compliance therewith would be unreasonable on account of the short duration of the voyages on which the ship is engaged.

49 Machinery Spaces : General.

49. Every ship of Class I shall be provided with appliances whereby at least two powerful jets of water can be rapidly and simultaneously directed into any part of the coal bunker spaces, if any, and the machinery spaces.

50 Machinery Spaces : Ships fitted with main or auxiliary oil-fired boilers.

50.—(1) Every ship of Class I fitted with main or auxiliary oil-fired boilers, shall be provided in the machinery spaces with

(a) at least two fire hydrants, one on the port side and one on the starboard side, and

(b) for each such hydrant, a fire hose with a nozzle suitable for spraying water on oil.

(2) In each firing space of every ship of Class I fitted with main or auxiliary oil-fired boilers a receptacle shall be provided which shall contain at least 10 cubic feet of sand, or other dry material suitable for quenching oil fires. Scoops shall be provided for distributing the contents of the receptacle.

(3) In each firing space in every such ship and in each compartment which contains the whole or part of the oil fuel installation, at least two portable fire extinguishers shall be provided which shall be capable of discharging froth or another substance suitable for quenching oil fires.

(4) A froth installation, complying with the requirements specified in the Thirteenth Schedule to these Rules, shall be provided in every such ship whereby froth can be rapidly discharged and distributed over each boiler room, and over any space which contains the whole or part of the oil fuel installation. The froth available for discharge shall be sufficient in quantity to cover to a depth of 6 inches the largest single area over which oil fuel may spread in the event of leakage. If the engine room and boiler room are not separated from each other by a bulkhead and fuel oil may drain from the boiler room into the engine room bilges, the engine room and boiler room shall, for the purpose of this sub-paragraph, be regarded as a single area.

The aforesaid appliances shall be capable of being controlled from an easily accessible position which is not likely to be cut off in the event of fire. The Minister may exempt any ship from the requirements of this sub-paragraph if he is satisfied that the boiler room and the spaces containing the oil fuel installation are adequately protected by a permanent piping system for the discharge of smothering-gas-or water at high pressure.

(5) One froth fire extinguisher of at least 30 gallons capacity shall be provided in every such ship with one boiler room, and two such extinguishers shall be provided in every such ship with more than one boiler room. Every such extinguisher shall be provided with a reel of hose capable of reaching every part of the boiler room and of any space which contains the whole or part of the oil fuel installation. A carbon dioxide extinguisher of at least 100 lb. capacity may be provided in lieu of such froth fire extinguisher.

51 Engine Rooms : Motor Ships.

51. Every ship of Class I propelled by internal combustion machinery shall be provided in the compartment containing that machinery with at least—

(a) two fire hydrants, one on the port side and one on the starboard side ;

(b) for each such hydrant, a fire hose with a nozzle suitable for spraying water on oil ;

(c) one froth fire extinguisher of at least 30 gallons capacity or a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher of at least 100 lb. capacity, so however that in any ship in which fire extinguishers are provided in a boiler room in accordance with paragraph (5) of Rule 50 of these Rules, the extinguisher required by this sub-paragraph shall not berequired to exceed 10 gallons in capacity in the case of a froth extinguisher, or 35 lb. in the case of a carbon dioxide extinguisher ; and

(d) one portable froth fire extinguisher for each 1,000 B.H.P. of the said machinery or fraction thereof, but in no event less than 2 such extinguishers ; provided that no more than 6 such extinguishers shall be required in any one compartment.

52 Fire pumps.

52.—(1) Every ship of Class I of 4,000 tons or over shall be provided with at least 3 fire pumps operated by power, and every such ship of under 4,000 tons with at least 2 such fire pumps.

(2) In every ship of Class I fitted with main or auxiliary oil-fired boilers or internal combustion propelling machinery the arrangements of sea connections, pumps and the sources of power for operating them shall be such as will ensure that a fire in any one compartment will not put all the fire pumps out of action.

53 Water pipes, Hydrants and Fire hoses.

53. Every ship of Class I shall be provided with water pipes and hydrants. The diameter of the water pipes shall be sufficient to enable an adequate supply of water to be provided for the simultaneous operation of at least two fire hoses and for the projection thereby of two powerful jets of water. The number and position of the hydrants shall be such that at least two such jets may be directed into any part of the ship by means of two fire hoses each not exceeding 60 feet in length, each jet being supplied from a separate hydrant. At least one fire hose shall be provided for each hydrant.

54 Firemen's outfits.

54. Every ship of Class I shall be provided with at least two firemen's outfits each consisting of :—

(a) a safety lamp ;

(b) a fireman's axe ;

(c) (i) a breathing apparatus ; or (ii) a smoke helmet ; or (iii) a smoke mask, complying with the requirements respectively specified in the Eighteenth Schedule to these Rules.

The outfits shall be kept in widely separated places.

55 Portable drilling machine.

55. Every ship of Class I shall be provided with a portable electric drilling machine to provide emergency means of access to fires through decks, casings or bulkheads.

SHIPS OF CLASS II.

56 ..

56. Rules 46 to 55, inclusive, of these Rules shall apply to ships of Class II as they apply to ships of Class I.

SHIPS OF CLASS III.

57 ..

57. Paragraph (1) of Rule 46 and Rules 47 to 55, inclusive, of these Rules shall apply to ships of Class III as they apply to ships of Class I.

SHIPS OF CLASS IV.

58 Passenger and Crew spaces.

58.—(1) Every ship of Class IV shall be provided with appliances whereby a powerful jet of water can be rapidly directed upon any part of the passenger spaces and crew spaces.

(2) Every such ship shall be provided with at least one portable fluid fire extinguisher in each of the passenger spaces above the upper deck and with at least two extinguishers in each of the crew spaces, and of the passenger spaces below that deck.

59 Cargo spaces and Store rooms.

59. Every ship of Class IV shall be provided with appliances whereby a powerful jet of water can be rapidly directed into any cargo space or store room.

60 Machinery spaces, etc.

60.—(1) Every ship of Class IV shall be provided with appliances whereby a powerful jet of water can be rapidly directed into any part of the coal bunker spaces, boiler rooms and engine rooms.

(2) Every ship of Class IV fitted with oil-fired boilers or internal combustion propelling machinery shall be provided in the machinery spaces with at least one fire hydrant and fire hose with a nozzle suitable for spraying water on oil.

61 Machinery spaces : Ships fitted with main or auxiliary oil-fired boilers.

61.—(1) Every ship of Class IV fitted with main or auxiliary oil-fired boilers shall be provided in each firing space with a receptacle which shall contain an adequate quantity of sand, or other dry material suitable for quenching oil fires. Scoops shall be provided for distributing the contents of the receptacle.

(2) Two portable fire extinguishers, capable of discharging froth or another substance suitable for quenching oil fires, shall be provided in the boiler room of every such ship and in each machinery space therein which contains a part of the oil fuel installation.

(3) A froth installation, complying with the requirements specified in the Thirteenth Schedule to these Rules, shall be provided in every such ship whereby froth can be rapidly discharged and distributed over each boiler room, and over any space which contains the whole or part of the oil fuel installation. The froth available for discharge shall be sufficient in quanity to cover to a depth of 6 inches the largest single area over which oil fuel may spread in the event of leakage. If the engine room and boiler room are not separated from each other by a bulkhead and fuel oil may drain from the boiler room into the engine room bilges, the engine room and boiler room shall, for the purpose of this sub-paragraph, be regarded as a single area. The aforesaid appliances shall be capable of being controlled from an easily accessible position which is not likely to be cut off in the event of fire. The Minister may exempt any ship from the requirements of this sub-paragraph if he is satisfied that the boiler room and the spaces containing the oil fuel installation are adequately protected by a permanent piping system for the discharge of smothering-gas or water at high pressure.

(4) Two froth fire extinguishers of at least 10 gallons capacity shall be provided in the machinery spaces of every such ship. Every such extinguisher shall be provided with a fire hose capable of reaching every part of the boiler room and of any space which contains a part of the oil fuel installation. A carbon dioxide fire extinguisher of at least 35 lb. capacity may be provided in lieu of a froth fire extinguisher of 10 gallons capacity.

62 Engine Rooms : Motor Ships.

62. Every ship of Class IV propelled by internal combustion machinery shall be provided in each machinery compartment with at least—

(a) one froth fire extinguisher of at least 10 gallons capacity or one carbon dioxide fire extinguisher of at least 35 lb. capacity ;

(b) one portable froth fire extinguisher for each 1,000 B.H.P. or fraction thereof of the said machinery, but in no event less than 2 such extinguishers ; provided that not more than 6 such extinguishers shall be required in any ship.

63 Water Pipes, Hydrants and Fire hoses.

63. Every ship of Class IV shall be provided with water pipes and hydrants. The diameter of the water service pipes shall be sufficient to enable an adequate supply of water to be provided for the operation of at least one fire hose and the projection thereby of a powerful jetof water. The number and position of the fire hydrants shall be such that at least one such jet may be directed into any part of the ship by means of a fire hose not exceeding 60 feet in length. At least one fire hose shall be provided for each hydrant.

64 Fire Pumps.

64.—(1) Every ship of Class IV shall be provided with at least one fire pump operated by power.

(2) Every ship of Class IV fitted with oil-fired main or auxiliary boilers or internal combustion propelling machinery shall be provided with an additional fire pump, which shall not be required to be operated by power and shall be permanently connected to the water pipes referred to in Rule 63 of these Rules. Such pump and its source of power, if any, shall not be situated in the same compartment as the pump required by paragraph (1) of this Rule. If a hand pump is provided in compliance with this paragraph it shall be of the rotary type. A sea suction valve for use with the additional pump shall be provided and shall be capable of being controlled from outside the machinery space.

SHIPS OF CLASS V.

65 Passenger and Crew spaces.

65.—(1) Every ship of Class V shall be provided with appliances whereby a powerful jet of water can be rapidly directed upon any part of the passenger spaces and crew spaces.

(2) Every such ship shall be provided with at least one portable fluid fire extinguisher in each of the passenger spaces above the upper deck, and with at least two such extinguishers in each of the crew spaces and of the passenger spaces below that deck.

66 Cargo spaces and Store rooms.

66. Every ship of Class V shall be provided with appliances whereby a powerful jet of water can be rapidly directed into any cargo space or store room.

67 Machinery spaces, etc.

67.—(1) Every ship of Class V shall be provided with appliances whereby a powerful jet of water can be rapidly directed into any part of the coal bunker spaces, boiler rooms and engine rooms.

(2) Every ship of Class V fitted with oil-fired boilers or internal combustion propelling machinery shall be provided in the machinery spaces with at least one fire hydrant and fire hose with a nozzle suitable for spraying water on oil.

68 Machinery spaces : Ships fitted with main or auxiliary oil-fired boilers.

68.—(1) Every ship of Class V fitted with main or auxiliary oil-fired boilers shall be provided in the machinery spaces with at least—

(a) a receptacle containing an adequate quantity of sand, or other dry material suitable for quenching oil fires ;

(b) a scoop for distributing the contents of the receptacle ;

(c) two portable fire extinguishers capable of discharging froth or some other substance suitable for quenching oil fires.

(2) One froth fire extinguisher of at least 30 gallons capacity shall be provided in the machinery spaces of every such ship. The extinguisher shall be provided with fire hoses capable of reaching every part of the boiler room and of any space which contains a part of the oil fuel installation. A carbon dioxide fire extinguisher of at least 100 lb. capacity may be provided in lieu of a froth fire extinguisher of 30 gallons capacity.

69 Engine Rooms : Motor Ships.

69. Every ship of Class V propelled by internal combustion machinery shall be provided in each machinery compartment with at least—

(a) one froth fire extinguisher of at least 10 gallons capacity or one carbon dioxide fire extinguisher of at least 35 lb. capacity ;

(b) one portable froth fire extinguisher for each 1,000 B.H.P. of the said machinery or fraction thereof, but in no event less than 2 such extinguishers ; provided that not more than 6 such extinguishers shall be required in any ship.

70 Water Pipes, Hydrants and Fire Hoses.

70. Every ship of Class V shall be provided with water pipes and hydrants. The diameter of the water service pipes shall be sufficient to enable an adequate supply of water to be provided for the operation of at least one fire hose and the projection thereby of a powerful jet of water. The number and position of the fire hydrants shall be such that at least one such jet may be directed into any part of the ship by meansof a fire hose not exceeding 60 feet in length. At least one fire hose shall be provided for each hydrant.

71 Fire pumps.

71.—(1) Every ship of Class V shall be provided with at least one fire pump operated by power.

(2) Every ship of Class V fitted with oil-fired boilers or internal combustion propelling machinery shall be provided with an additional fire pump, which shall not be required to be operated by power and shall be permanently connected to the water pipes referred to in Rule 70 of these Rules. Such pump and its source of power, if any, shall not be situated in the same compartment as the pump required by paragraph (1) of this Rule. If a hand pump is provided in compliance with this paragraph it shall be of the rotary type. A sea suction valve shall be provided which shall be capable of being controlled from outside the machinery space.

SHIPS OF CLASS VI.

72 Fully-decked ships.

72. Rules 65 to 71, inclusive, of these Rules shall apply to fully-decked ships of Class VI as they apply to ships of Class V.

73 Motor Ships not fully-decked.

73. Every ship of Class VI which is not fully-decked, being a ship propelled by internal combustion machinery, shall be provided with at least—

(a) a hand pump with a hose, or two fire buckets;

(b) a receptacle containing an adequate quantity of sand, or other dry material suitable for quenching oil fires;

(c) a scoop for distributing the contents of the receptacle;

(d) froth fire extinguishers and fire extinguishers capable of discharging carbon tetrachloride or another substance suitable for quenching oil fires, in accordance with the following table :—

Length of the ship

Froth extinguishers

Number of extinguishers discharging carbon tetrachloride or another substance suitable for quenching oil fires

Number

Minimum capacity of each extinguisher

Not over 30 feet

1

1 gallon

2

Over 30 feet but not over 50 feet

2

1 gallon

2

Over 50 feet

2

2 gallons

3

74 Partially-decked Motor Ships.

74. Every ship of Class VI which is not fully-decked but is decked in way of the engine room and is propelled by internal combustion machinery shall be provided with a hand pump and with a fire hose with a nozzle suitable for spraying water on oil.

SHIPS OF CLASS VII.

75 ..

75.—(1) Rules 65 to 71, inclusive, of these Rules shall apply to fully-decked ships of Class VII as they apply to ships of Class V.

(2) Rules 73 and 74 of these Rules shall apply to ships of Class VII which are not fully-decked as they apply to ships of Class VI.

SHIPS OF CLASS VIII.

76 Cargo spaces.

76.—(1) Every ship of Class VIII of 2,000 tons or over shall be provided with appliances whereby fire-smothering gas can be rapidly conveyed by a permanent piping system into any compartment appropriated for the carriage of cargo. The volume of free gas available shall be at least equal to 30 per cent. of the gross volume of the largest hold in the ship which is capable of being effectively closed.

Provided that—

(a) steam may be substituted for fire-smothering gas in any ship in which there are available boilers capable of evaporating 1 1b. of steam per hour for each 12 cubic feet of the gross volume of the largest hold in the ship;

(b) in the cargo spaces of any tanker a froth installation, complying with the Thirteenth Schedule to these Rules, may be substituted for a system for conveying fire-smothering gas.

(2) The Minister may exempt any ship other than a tanker, from the requirements of paragraph (1) of this Rule if he is satisfied that—

(a) the holds therein are provided with steel hatch covers and effective means of closing all ventilators and other openings leading to the holds; or

(b) the ship is constructed for, and employed solely in, the carriage of ore or coal; or

(c) to require compliance with the requirements of the aforesaid paragraph would be unreasonable on account of the short duration of the voyages on which the ship is engaged:

77 Fire Hoses and Pumps.

77.—(1) Every ship of Class VIII of 1,000 tons or over shall be provided with appliances whereby at least two powerful jets of water can be rapidly and simultaneously directed on any part of the ship. Such appliances shall include two fire hoses and a spare fire hose 30 feet in length, together with two pumps operated by power.

(2) Every ship of Class VIII of under 1,000 tons shall be provided with appliances whereby at least one powerful jet of water can be rapidly directed into any part of the ship. Such appliances shall include one fire hose and a spare fire hose 30 feet in length, together with two pumps operated by power.

(3) If, in any ship of Class VIII fitted with main or auxiliary oil-fired boilers or with internal combustion propelling machinery, a fire in any one compartment might put out of action every fire pump provided in the ship, alternative means for extinguishing the fire shall be provided.

78 Portable fire extinguishers.

78. Every ship of Class VIII shall be provided with a sufficient number of portable fire extinguishers to ensure that at least one such extinguisher will be readily available for use in every compartment of the crew spaces and passenger spaces, if any. The number of such extinguishers shall not be less than five in a ship of 1,000 tons or over and not less than three in a ship of under 1,000 tons.

79 Firemen's outfits.

79.—(1) Every ship of Class VIII of 4,000 tons or over shall be provided with at least two firemen's outfits each consisting of :—

(a) a safety lamp;

(b) a fireman's axe;

(c) (i) a breathing apparatus; or (ii) a smoke helmet; or (iii) a smoke mask, complying with the requirements respectively specified in the Eighteenth Schedule to these Rules.

The outfits shall be kept in widely separated places.

(2) Every ship of Class VIII of under 4,000 tons shall be provided with at least one such outfit.

80 Portable drilling machine.

80. Every ship of Class VIII on which a supply of electrical energy is available, other than a tanker, shall be provided with a portable electric drilling machine to provide emergency means of access to fires through decks, casings or bulkheads.

81 Machinery Spaces : Ships with main or auxiliary oil-fired boilers.

81.—(1) Every ship of Class VIII fitted with main or auxiliary oil-fired boilers shall be provided in the machinery spaces with—

(a) at least two fire hydrants, one on the port side and one on the starboard side, and

(b) for each such hydrant a fire hose with a nozzle suitable for spraying water on oil.

(2) In each firing space of every ship of Class VIII fitted with main or auxiliary oil-fired boilers a receptacle shall be provided which shall contain at least 10 cubic feet of sand, or other dry material suitable for quenching oil fires. Scoops shall be provided for distributing the contents of the receptacle.

(3) In each firing space in every such ship and in each compartment therein containing the whole or part of the oil fuel installation, at least two portable fire extinguishers shall be provided which shall be capable of discharging froth or another substance suitable for quenching an oil fire.

In addition, one such extinguisher of at least 10 gallon capacity, or a carbon dioxide extinguisher of at least 35 lb. capacity shall be provided in each boiler room if the numbers of burners therein is five or more. If the number of burners in a boiler room is less than five, there shall be provided therein one froth fire extinguisher of at least 2 gallons capacity for each burner.

(4) A froth installation, complying with the requirements specified in the Thirteenth Schedule to these Rules, shall be provided in every such ship whereby froth can be rapidly discharged and distributed over each boiler room, and over any space which contains the whole or part of the fuel installation. The froth available for discharge shall be sufficient in quantity to cover to a depth of 6 inches the largest single area over which oil fuel may spread in the event of leakage. If the engine room and boiler room are not separated from each other by a bulkhead and fuel oil may drain from the boiler room into the engine room bilges, the engine room and boiler room shall, for the purpose of this sub-paragraph, be regarded as a single area. The aforesaid appliances shall be capable of being controlled from a readily accessible position which is not likely to be cut off in the event of fire. The Minister may exempt any ship from the requirements of this sub-paragraph if he is satisfied that the boiler room and the spaces containing the oil fuel installation are adequately protected by :—

(a) a permanent piping system for the discharge of smothering-gas, steam or water at high pressure ; and

(b) if such system discharges steam and the ship is fitted only with watertube boilers, a froth fire extinguisher of at least 30 gallons or a carbon dioxide extinguisher of at least 100 lb. capacity.

82 Engine Rooms : Motor Ships.

82. In every ship of Class VIII fitted with internal combustion propelling machinery, the following fire appliances shall be provided in the compartment containing that machinery :—

(a) two fire hydrants, one on the port side and one on the starboard side ;

(b) for each such hydrant, a fire hose with a nozzle suitable for spraying water on oil ;

(c) two froth fire extinguishers each of at least 10 gallons capacity, or two carbon dioxide fire extinguishers each of at least 35 lb. capacity, provided that only one such extinguisher shall be required in any ship in which a froth fire extinguisher of at least 10 gallons capacity or a carbon dioxide extinguisher of at least 35 lb. capacity is provided in compliance with paragraphs (3) or (4) of Rule 81 of these Rules : and

(d) portable fire extinguishers, capable of dishcarging froth or another substance suitable for quenching oil fires, in accordance with the following table :—

B.H.P. of Main Engines

Number of Portable Extinguishers

Not over 1,000

2

Over 1,000 but not over 2,000

3

Over 2,000 but not over 3,000

4

Over 3,000 but not over 4,000

5

Over 4,000

6

SHIPS OF CLASS IX.

83 ..

83. Rules 76 to 82, inclusive, of these Rules shall apply to ships of Class IX as they apply to ships of Class VIII.

SHIPS OF CLASS X.

84 Ships of 1,000 tons and over.

84. Rules 77 to 82, inclusive, of these Rules shall apply to ships of Class X of 1,000 tons and over as they apply to ships of Class VIII.

85 Ships of 500 tons or over but under 1,000 tons.

85.—(1) This Rule applies to ships of Class X of 500 tons or over but under 1,000 tons.

(2) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall be provided with at least—

(a) one pump operated by power and one fire hose whereby a powerful jet of water can be rapidly directed into any part of the ship, together with a spare fire hose 30 feet in length;

(b) three portable fire extinguishers readily accessible for use in the crew spaces and passenger spaces, if any ; and

(c) a fireman's outfit consisting of a safety lamp, a fireman's axe, and (i) a breathing apparatus ; or (ii) a smoke helmet ; or (iii) a smoke mask, complying with the requirements respectively specified in the Eighteenth Schedule to these Rules.

(3) Every ship to which this Rule applies, being a ship fitted with main or auxiliary oil-fired boilers or internal combustion propelling machinery, shall be provided in the machinery spaces with a hydrant and a fire hose with a nozzle suitable for spraying water on oil.

(4) (a) Every ship to which this Rule applies, being a ship fitted with oil-fired boilers, shall be provided in each boiler room with—

(i) a receptacle containing an adequate quantity of sand, or other dry material suitable for quenching oil fires ;

(ii) a scoop for distributing the contents of the receptacle.

(b) In each firing space in every such ship and in each compartment therein containing the whole or part of the oil fuel installation, at least two portable fire extinguishers shall be provided which shall be capable of discharging froth or some other substance suitable for quenching an oil fire. In addition one such extinguisher of at least 10 gallons capacity or a carbon dioxide extinguisher of at least 35 lb. capacity shall be provided in each boiler room if the number of burners therein is five or more. If the number of burners in a boiler room is less than five there shall be provided therein one froth extinguisher of at least two gallons capacity for each burner.

(c) A froth installation, complying with the requirements specified in the Thirteenth Schedule to these Rules, shall be provided in every such ship whereby froth can be rapidly discharged and distributed over each boiler room, and over any space which contains the whole or part of the fuel installation. The froth available for discharge shall be sufficient in quantity to cover to a depth of 6 inches the largest single area over which oil fuel may spread in the event of leakage. If the engine room and boiler room are not separated from each other by a bulkhead and fuel oil may drain from the boiler room into the engine room bilges, the engine room and boiler room shall, for the purpose of this sub-paragraph, be regarded as a single area. The aforesaid appliances shall be capable of being controlled from a readily accessible position which is not likely to be cut off in the event of fire. The Minister may exempt any ship from the requirements of this sub-paragraph if he is satisfied that the boiler room and spaces containing the oil fuel installation are adequately protected by :—

(i) a permanent piping system for the discharge of smothering-gas, steam, or water at high pressure ;

(ii) if such system discharges steam and the ship is fitted only with watertube boilers, a froth fire extinguisher of at least 30 gallons capacity or a carbon dioxide extinguisher of at least 100 lb capacity.

(5) Every ship to which this Rule applies, being a ship fitted with internal combustion propelling machinery, shall be provided in the machinery spaces with portable fire extinguishers capable of discharging froth or another substance for quenching oil fires, in accordance with the following table :—

B.HP. of Main Engines

Number of Portable Extinguishers

Not over 100

3

Over 100 but not over 150

4

Over 150 but not over 200

5

Over 200 but not over 250

6

Over 250

7

Provided that, for the number of portable fire extinguishers set forth in the foregoing table, there may be substituted two such extinguishers as are referred to in the foregoing provision, and either—

(a) one froth fire extinguisher of at least 10 gallons capacity ; or

(b) one carbon dioxide fire extinguisher of at least 35 lb. capacity.

86 Ships of 150 tons or over but under 500 tons.

86.—(1) This Rule applies to ships of Class X of 150 tons or over but under 500 tons.

(2) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall be provided with at least—

(a) one pump operated by power and one fire hose whereby a powerful jet of water can be rapidly directed into any part of the ship ;

(b) four fire buckets and a fireman's axe.

(3) Every ship to which this Rule applies, being a ship fitted with main or auxiliary oil-fired boilers or internal combustion propelling machinery, shall be provided with a nozzle suitable for spraying water on oil by means of the fire hose referred to in paragraph (2) of this Rule.

(4) (a) Every ship to which this Rule applies, being a ship fitted with main or auxiliary oil-fired boilers, shall be provided in the machinery space with—

(i) a receptacle containing an adequate quantity of sand, or other dry material suitable for quenching oil fires ;

(ii) a scoop for distributing the contents of the receptacle.

(b) The boiler room in every such ship and each compartment in the ship which contains the whole or part of the oil fuel installation, shall be provided with at least two portable fire extinguishers capable of discharging froth or another substance suitable for quenching oil fires.

(c) A froth installation, complying with the requirements specified in the Thirteenth Schedule to these Rules, shall be provided in every such ship whereby froth can be rapidly discharged and distributed over each boiler room, and over any space which contains the whole or part of the fuel installation. The froth available for discharge shall be sufficient in quantity to cover to a depth of 6 inches the largest single area over which fuel oil may spread in the event of leakage. If the engine room and boiler room are not separated from each other by a bulkhead and fuel oil may drain from the boiler room into the engine room bilges, the engine room and boiler room shall, for the purpose of this sub-paragraph, be regarded as a single area. The aforesaid appliances shall be capable of being controlled from a readily accessible position which is not likely to be cut off in the event of fire. The Minister may exempt any ship from the requirements of this subparagraph if he is satisfied that the boiler room and the spaces containing the oil fuel installation are adequately protected by a permanent piping system for the discharge of smothering-gas, steam, or water at high pressure.

(5) Every ship to which this rule applies, being a ship fitted with internal combustion propelling machinery, shall be provided in the engine room with—

(a) a receptacle containing an adequate quantity of sand, or other dry material suitable for quenching oil fires ;

(b) a scoop for distributing the contents of the receptacle ;

(c) at least two portable fire extinguishers capable of discharging froth or another substance suitable for quenching oil fires.

87 Ships of under 150 tons.

87.—(1) This Rule applies to Ships of Class X of under 150 tons.

(2) Every ship to which this Rule applies shall be provided with—

(a) one pump and one fire hose whereby a powerful jet of water can be rapidly directed into any part of the ship ; and

(b) at least three fire buckets and a fireman's axe.

Provided that in open ships fitted with internal combustion propelling machinery two fire buckets with lanyards attached may be substituted for a pump and a fire hose. Such buckets shall be additional to the buckets referred to in sub-paragraph (b) of this paragraph.

(3) Every ship to which this Rule applies, being a ship fitted with main or auxiliary oil-fired boilers or internal combustion propelling machinery, shall be provided with—

(a) a receptacle containing an adequate quantity of sand, or other dry material suitable for quenching oil fires ;

(b) a scoop for distributing the contents of the receptacle ;

(c) if the ship is provided with a fire hose, a nozzle suitable for spraying water on oil by means of that hose ;

(d) at least two portable fire extinguishers capable of discharging froth or another substance suitable for quenching oil fires.

SHIPS OF CLASSES XI, XII AND XIII.

88 ..

88. (1) Rules 84 to 87, inclusive, of these Rules shall apply to ships of Classes XI, XII and XIII as they apply to ships of Class X.

(2) The Minister may exempt any ship of Classes XI, XII and XIII, from any of the requirements of these Rules.

SHIPS OF CLASS XIV.

89 ..

89.—(1) Every ship of Class XIV shall be provided with—

(a) one pump operated by power and one fire hose whereby a powerful jet of water can rapidly be directed into any part of the ship ; provided that a hand pump may be substituted for a power pump in ships of under 70 feet in length and in ships in which sails are the main means of propulsion ; and

(b) fire buckets in accordance with the following table :—

Length of ship in feet

Minimum number of buckets

50 and under

2, one of which shall be fitted with a lanyard.

Over 50 but not over 70

3, two of which shall be fitted with lanyards.

Over 70

4, two of which shall be fitted with lanyards.

(2) Every ship of Class XIV fitted with oil-fired boilers and every decked ship of Class XIV fitted with internal combustion propelling machinery shall be provided with a nozzle suitable for spraying water on oil by means of the fire hose referred to in paragraph (1) of this Rule.

(3) Every ship of Class XIV fitted with main or auxiliary oil-fired boilers shall be provided in the boiler room with—

(a) a receptacle containing an adequate quantity of sand, or other dry material suitable for quenching oil fires ;

(b) a scoop for distributing the contents of the receptacle ;

(c) at least two portable fire extinguishers capable of discharging froth or another substance suitable for quenching oil fires ; and

(d) a froth installation, complying with the requirements specified in the Thirteenth Schedule to these Rules, shall be provided in every such ship whereby froth can be rapidly discharged and distributed over each boiler room, and over any space which contains the whole or part of the fuel installation. The froth available for discharge shall be sufficient in quantity to cover to a depth of 6 inches the largest single area over which oil fuel may spread in the event of leakage. If the engine room and boiler room are not separated from each other by a bulkhead and fuel oil may drain from the boiler room into the engine room bilges, the engine room and boiler room shall, for the purpose of this sub-paragraph, be regarded as a single area. The aforesaid appliances shall be capable of being controlled from a readily accessible position which is not likely to be cut off in the event of fire. The Minister may exempt any ship from the requirements of this sub-paragraph if he is satisfied that the boiler room and the spaces containing the oil fuel installation are adequately protected by a permanent piping system for the discharge of smothering-gas, steam, or water at high pressure.

(4) Every ship of Class XIV fitted with internal combustion propelling machinery shall be provided in the machinery space with portable fire extinguishers capable of discharging froth or another substance suitable for quenching oil fires. The number of such extinguishers shall be in accordance with the following table :—

B.H.P. of Main Engines

Number of Extinguishers

Not over 500

2

Over 500 but not over 1,000

3

Over 1,000 but not over 2,000

4

(5) The Minister may exempt any ship of Class XIV from any of the requirements of these Rules.

SHIPS OF CLASS XV.

90 ..

90.— Every ship of Class XV shall be provided with :—

(a) one pump and one fire hose whereby a powerful jet of water can be rapidly directed into any part of the ship ;

(b) sufficient portable fire extinguishers to ensure that at least one is available for immediate use in each compartment of the crew spaces and of the passenger spaces, if any;

(c) fire buckets in accordance with the following table :—

Length of ship in feet

Minimum number of buckets

50 or under

2, one of which shall be fitted with a lanyard.

Over 50 but not over 70

3, two of which shall be fitted with lanyards.

Over 70

4, two of which shall be fitted with lanyards.

SHIPS OF CLASS XVI.

91 ..

91.—(1) Every ship of Class XVI of 70 feet in length and over shall be provided with a pump and a fire hose whereby a powerful jet of water can rapidly be directed into any part of the ship.

(2) Every ship of Class XVI shall be provided with fire buckets in accordance with the following table :—

Length in feet

Minimum number of buckets

50 or under

2, one of which shall be fitted with a lanyard.

Over 50 but not over 70

3, two of which shall be fitted with lanyards.

Over 70

4, two of which shall be fitted with lanyards.

(3) Every ship of Class XVI of 70 feet in length and over and fitted with internal combustion propelling machinery shall be provided with a nozzle suitable for spraying water on oil by means of the fire hose referred to in paragraph (1) of this Rule.

(4) Every ship of Class XVI fitted with internal combustion propelling machinery shall be provided with portable fire extinguishers capable of discharging froth or another substance suitable for quenching oil fires. The number of such extinguishers shall be in accordance with the following table :—

B.H.P. of Main Engines

Number of Extinguishers

Not over 500

2

Over 500

3

(5) Every ship of Class XVI in which sails are the only means of propulsion shall carry not less than two portable fire extinguishers.

(6) The Minister may exempt any ship of Class XVI from any of the requirements of these Rules.

GENERAL.

92 Power pumps.

92.—(1) Every pump required by these Rules to be operated by power shall be operated by a means other than the ship's main engines, and shall not be used for pumping oil.

(2) Every such pump shall be capable of producing a throw of at least forty feet at every nozzle, other than a spray nozzle, when used with any of the fire hoses and nozzles provided in compliance with these Rules.

(3) Escape valves shall, whenever necessary, be provided in connection with every such pump and shall be so placed and adjusted as to prevent excessive pressure in any part of the water pipes served by the pump.

(4) In every ship required by these Rules to be provided with pumps operated by power, the total pumping capacity of the pumps provided in compliance with that requirement shall not be less than two-thirds of the total pumping capacity of the bilge pumps provided in the ship.

93 Water pipes and Hydrants.

93.—(1) All water pipes and fire hydrants provided in compliance with these Rules shall be so placed that fire hoses may easily be coupled to them. In ships which may carry deck cargo, the hydrants shall be so placed that the deck cargo will not hinder access to them, and the water pipes shall be protected from damage by the cargo

(2) The water pipes shall not be made of cast iron, and if made of iron or steel shall be galvanised.

(3) Cocks or valves shall be fitted to the water pipes and shall be so arranged that any fire hoses coupled thereto may be removed while fire pumps are in operation.

94 Fire hoses, Nozzles, etc.

94.—(1) Fire hoses provided in compliance with these Rules shall not exceed 60 feet in length and shall be made of leather, seamless hemp, closely woven flax canvas, or other suitable material and shall be provided with couplings, conductors and other necessary fittings, and with a plain nozzle of not less than ½ inch diameter in addition to any spray-nozzle required by these Rules.

(2) Every fire hose provided in compliance with these Rules, together with the tools and fittings necessary for its use, shall be kept in a conspicuous position near the water hydrants or connections with which it is intended to be used.

(3) Except in partially decked ships of Classes VI and VII and in ships of Classes XIV and XVI, fire hoses provided in compliance with these Rules shall not be used for any purpose other than extinguishing fire or testing with fire appliances.

95 Fire buckets.

95.—(1) Every fire bucket provided in compliance with these Rules shall be painted red and shall be clearly and permanently marked with the word " FIRE." Every such bucket shall be kept filled with sand or water.

(2) At least half the number of fire buckets provided in compliance with these Rules shall be fitted with lanyards of sufficient length to enable the buckets to be filled from the sea.

(3) Fire buckets provided in compliance with these Rules shall not be used for any purpose other than extinguishing fire.

96 Fire extinguishers.

96.—(1) The fire extinguishers provided in compliance with these Rules shall be constructed in accordance with the Schedules to these Rules respectively specified in the second column of the following table :—

Type of Extinguisher

Schedule

Non-portable froth

Fourteenth

Portable or non-portable carbon dioxide

Fifteenth

Portable carbon tetrachloride

Sixteenth

Any other type of portable extinguisher

Seventeenth

(2) Not more than two types of portable fire extinguisher shall be provided in the passenger and crew spaces of any ship to which these Rules apply.

(3) A spare charge shall be provided for every portable fire extinguisher provided in compliance with these Rules.

(4) Fire extinguishers in which the substance for extinguishing fire is stored under pressure shall not be provided for use in passenger spaces or crew spaces.

(5) For the purposes of these Rules the capacity of any fire extinguisher other than a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher shall be taken to be the greatest volume of solution which it can contain when sufficient air space is left to ensure the proper operation of the extinguisher.

(6) For the purposes of these Rules the capacity of a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher shall be taken to be the greatest weight of carbon dioxide which it can, without danger of exploding, contain in a tropical climate.

(7) Every fire extinguisher provided in compliance with these Rules shall at all times be kept full charged.

97 Smothering-gas or Steam installations.

97.—(1) Every piping system provided in a ship to which these Rules apply for conveying smothering-gas or steam shall be capable of being controlled by valves or cocks which shall be capable of being locked and shall be readily accessible from the deck. Such cocks or valves shall be clearly and permanently marked to indicate the compartments which they serve. Every piping system which serves a compartment to which passengers may have access shall be fitted with an additional cock or valve capable of being locked.

(2) The piping shall be so arranged as to distribute the smothering-gas or steam in an efficient manner. Where necessary for that purpose at least two pipes shall be provided in cargo spaces, one in the forward part of the space and the other in the after part. Except in tankers and ships used for the conveyance of coal, pipes for conveying steam shall be fitted with outlets as low as practicable in the space which they serve.

(3) In tankers, the piping system shall be so arranged that the steam or fire smothering-gas will be distributed over the surface of the cargo.

(4) When carbon dioxide is provided as an extinguishing medium discharged into boiler rooms by a piping system, the quantity of gas available shall be sufficient to give a minimum volume of free gas equal to 30 per cent. of the gross volume of the largest boiler room measured to the top of the boilers. If the engine and boiler rooms are not separated by a bulkhead and fuel oil may drain from the boiler into the engine room bilges, the combined engine and boiler rooms shall, for the purposes of this paragraph, be regarded as a single area.

(5) For the purpose of determining the quantity of liquified carbon dioxide required to produce the volume of smothering-gas required by these Rules, 1 lb. of liquified carbon dioxide shall be deemed to produce 9 cubic feet of gas.

(6) Means shall be provided for giving audible warning when carbon dioxide is about to be released into any working space.

98 Stopping of fans and Closing of openings.

98. In every ship to which these Rules apply, means shall be provided for rapidly stopping all fans and closing all openings which might admit air to spaces provided with a piping system for the discharge of smothering-gas, steam or froth. The means for stopping the fans shall be situated outside such spaces.

99 Safety Lamps.

99. Every safety lamp provided in compliance with these Rules shall be operated by an electric battery and be capable of burning for a period of at least three hours.

100 Stowage of movable fire appliances.

100. All movable fire appliances, other than firemen's outfits, provided in compliance with these Rules shall be stowed where they will be readily accessible from the spaces in which they are intended to be used, and, in particular, fire extinguishers shall be stowed near the entrances to the spaces in which they are intended to be used.

101 Equivalents and Exemptions.

101.—(1) Where Part III of these Rules requires that a particular fitting, appliance or apparatus, or type thereof, shall be fitted or carried in a ship, or that any particular provision shall be made, the Minister may allow any other fitting, appliance or apparatus, or type thereof, to be fitted or carried, or any other provision to be made in that ship, if he is satisfied that that other fitting, appliance or apparatus, or type thereof, or provision, is at least as effective as that required by these Rules.

(2) The Minister may, on such conditions as he thinks fit, exempt any ship constructed before the coming into operation of these Rules from any of the requirements of Part III of these Rules if he is satisfied that that requirement is either impracticable or unreasonable in the case of that ship.

PART IV. MUSTERS.

102 Muster List.

102.—(1) The Master of every ship of Classes I, II, III, IV, VIII, IX and X shall prepare a muster list showing in respect of each member of the crew the special duties which are allotted to him and the station to which he shall go in the event of an emergency, including duties and stations applicable for extinguishing fire.

(2) The muster list shall specify definite signals for calling all the crew to their boat and fire stations in an emergency, and for indicating when the ship is to be abandoned.

(3) The muster list shall assign duties to the different members of the crew in connection with :—

(a) The closing of the watertight doors, valves and closing mechanism of scuppers, ash-shoots, etc.

(b) The equipment of the boats and buoyant apparatus generally.

(c) The launching of the boats attached to davits.

(d) The general preparation of any other boats and buoyant apparatus.

(e) The muster of the passengers (if any).

(f) The extinction of fire.

(4) The duty of seeing that the boats and buoyant apparatus and other life-saving apparatus are at all times ready for use shall be assigned by the muster list to one or more officers.

(5) The muster list shall assign to the members of the stewards' department their several duties in relation to the passengers at a time of emergency. These duties shall include :—

(a) Warning the passengers.

(b) Seeing that they are suitably clad and have put on their lifejackets in a proper manner.

(c) Assembling the passengers at muster stations.

(d) Keeping order in the passages and on the stairways, and, generally controlling the movements of the passengers.

(e) Seeing that a supply of blankets is taken to the lifeboats.

(6) The muster list shall be prepared, or, if a new list is not necessary, revised after the Agreement with the crew has been signed and before the ship proceeds to sea, and shall be dated and signed by the Master.

(7) If, after the muster list has been prepared, any change takes place in the crew which necessitates an alteration in the muster list the Master shall either revise the list or prepare a new list.

(8) Copies of the muster list shall be posted in several parts of the ship, and in particular in the crew's quarters, before the ship proceeds to sea and shall be kept so posted while the ship is at sea.

103 Emergency Signal for Passengers.

103.—(1) Assembly stations for all passengers shall be appointed for the event of an emergency and the position of those stations and the meaning of all signals affecting passengers shall be clearly stated in such languages as are appropriate on cards posted in their cabins and in conspicuous places in other passenger quarters.

(2) The emergency signal for summoning passengers to the assembly stations shall be a succession of more than six short blasts followed by one long blast on the whistle or siren.

104 Training.

104.—(1) In ships of Class I a muster of the crew shall be held before the ship leaves her final port of departure in the State and a muster of the passengers shall be held within twenty-four hours after leaving such port.

(2) In ships of Classes I, II, III and IV musters of the crew shall take place at intervals of not more than seven days, when practicable, to ensure that the crew understand and are drilled in the duties assigned to them for the event of an emergency.

(3) In ships of Classes VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, and in ships of Class XIV which proceed north of latitude 61° N., or south of latitude 48° 30' N., or west of longitude 12° W., and in ships of Class XV which proceed beyond Home trade limits, musters of the crew shall take place at intervals of not more than fourteen days to ensure that the crew understand and are drilled in the duties assigned to them for the event of an emergency. In all other ships of Classes XIV and XV the master shall take steps to ensure that the crew understand the uses of the life-saving equipment and fire appliances carried on board and know where they are kept.

(4) Different groups of boats shall be used in turn at successive boat drills. The drills and inspections shall be so arranged that the crew thoroughly understand and are practised in the duties they have to perform, and that all life-saving appliances and fire appliances with the gear appertaining to them are always ready for immediate use.

(5) In this Rule the expression " muster " includes a boat drill and a fire-drill.

PART V. PILOT LADDERS.

105 Provision of Pilot Ladders.

105.—(1) Every ship of Classes I, II, III, VIII, IX, X and XI shall be provided with a pilot ladder which shall comply with the following requirements of this Rule. Ships of Classes IV to VII, inclusive, and XII to XVI, inclusive, shall not be required to be provided with pilot ladders.

(2) Each pilot ladder shall be efficient for the purpose of enabling a pilot to embark and disembark safely from the ship and, without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing, shall be of sufficient length to reach the water, when the ship is in an unloaded condition and has no list, from the deck on which it is intended that the pilot shall embark and disembark.

(3) A man-rope of not less than 2½ inches circumference shall be provided on each side of the ladder and the inboard end of the man-rope shall be firmly secured to the ship.

(4) Means shall be provided to enable the ladder to be used on each side of the ship and to enable the pilot to pass safely from the head of the ladder to the deck of the ship.

(5) A light shall be provided which will shine alongside the ship so as to illuminate the ladder effectively at night.

(6) The Minister may in his discretion relieve any ship of Classes III and XI wholly or partially from the provisions of this Rule.

FIRST SCHEDULE.

TABLE.

Rules 4 and 5

Length of Ship

(A) Minimum number of sets of davits

(B) Smaller number of sets of davits authorised exceptionally

(C) Minimum capacity of life-boats in cubic feet

Feet

Under 120

2

120 and under 140

2

2

650

140 ,, ,, 160

2

2

900

160 ,, ,, 175

3

3

1,150

175 ,, ,, 190

3

3

1,350

190 ,, ,, 205

4

4

1,550

205 ,, ,, 220

4

4

1,750

220 ,, ,, 230

5

4

1,850

230 ,, ,, 245

5

4

2,150

245 ,, ,, 255

6

5

2,400

255 ,, ,, 270

6

5

2,700

270 ,, ,, 285

7

5

3,000

285 ,, ,, 300

7

5

3,300

300 ,, ,, 315

8

6

3,600

315 ,, ,, 330

8

6

3,900

330 ,, ,, 350

9

7

4,300

350 ,, ,, 370

9

7

4,750

370 ,, ,, 390

10

7

5,150

390 ,, ,, 410

10

7

5,550

410 ,, ,, 435

12

9

6,050

435 ,, ,, 460

12

9

6,550

460 ,, ,, 490

14

10

7,150

490 ,, ,, 520

14

3

7,800

520 ,, ,, 550

16

12

8,400

550 ,, ,, 580

16

12

580 ,, ,, 610

18

13

610 ,, ,, 640

18

13

640 ,, ,, 670

20

14

670 ,, ,, 700

20

14

700 ,, ,, 730

22

15

730 ,, ,, 760

22

15

760 ,, ,, 790

24

17

790 ,, ,, 820

24

17

820 ,, ,, 855

26

18

855 ,, ,, 890

26

18

890 ,, ,, 925

28

19

925 ,, ,, 960

28

19

960 ,, ,, 995

30

20

995 ,, ,, 1,030

30

20

SECOND SCHEDULE.

Rules 7 and 8.

Table showing the minimum number of sets of davits to be provided ship of Class IV or Class V:

Length of ship in feet

Minimum number of sets of davits

Under 200

2

200 and under 240

3

240 ,,  ,, 280

4

280,,  ,,  320

5

320 and over

6

THIRD SCHEDULE.

CONSTRUCTION AND CAPACITY OF LIFEBOATS.

Rules 20, 22 and 24

(1) Every boat shall have a mean sheer at least equal to four per cent. of its length.

(2) The air cases of every boat shall be so placed as to secure stability when fully laden under adverse weather conditions.

(3) Internal buoyancy appliances shall be constructed of copper or yellow metal of not less than 18 ozs. to the superficial foot.

(4) The buoyancy of a wooden boat shall be provided by watertight air cases, the total volume of which shall be at least equal to one-tenth of the cubic capacity of the boat.

(5) The buoyancy of a metal boat shall not be less than that required for a wooden boat of the same cubic capacity, and the volume of watertight air cases shall be increased accordingly.

(6) Subject to the provisions of paragraph (9) of this Schedule, the cubic capacity of a lifeboat for the purposes of these Rules shall be measured in cubic feet and shall be determined by Stirling's (Simpson's) Rule, that is to say, by the following formula :—

/images/si341y53p2251a.jpg

L denotes the length of the boat in feet from the inside of the planking or plating at the stem to the corresponding point at the stern post : in the case of a boat with a square stern the length is measured to the inside of the transom.

A, B, C denote respectively the areas of the cross-sections at the quarter length forward, amidships, and the quarter length aft, which correspond to the three points obtained by dividing L into four equal parts (the areas corresponding to the two ends of the boat shall be considered negligible).

The areas A, B, C shall be deemed to be given in square feet by the successive application of the following formula to each of the three cross-sections :—

/images/si341y53p2251b.jpg

where h denotes the depth measured in feet inside the planking or plating from the keel to the level of the gunwale, or, in certain cases, to a lower level, as determined hereafter ;

a, b, c, d, e denote the horizontal breadths of the boat measured in feet inside the planking or plating at the upper and lower points of the depth and at the three points obtained by dividing h into four equal parts (a and e being the breadths at the extreme points, and c at the middle point of h). The capacity of a square sterned boat shall be calculated as if the boat had a pointed stern.

(7) If the sheer of the gunwale, measured at the two points situated at a quarter of the length of the boat from the ends, exceeds 1 per cent. of the length of the boat, the depth employed in calculating the area of the cross-section A or C shall be deemed to be the depth amidships plus 1 per cent. of the length of the boat.

(8) If the depth of the boat amidships exceeds 45 per cent. of the breadth the depth employed in calculating the area of the amidship cross-section B shall be deemed to be equal to 45 per cent. of the breadth and the depth employed in calculating the areas of the quarter length sections A and C is obtained by increasing this last figure by an amount equal to 1 per cent. of the length of the boat, provided that in no case shall the depths employed in the calculation exceed the actual depths at these points.

(9) Unless the owner of the boat requires the cubic capacity to be determined by exact measurement the cubic capacity may be assumed to be the product of the length, the breadth and the depth multiplied by 0·6 if this formula does not give a greater capacity than that obtained by the formula set out in paragraph (6) of this Schedule. The dimensions shall be measured in the following manner :—

Length—From the intersection of the outside of the planking with the stem to the corresponding point at the stern post, or in the case of a square sterned boat, to the after side of the transom.

Breadth—From the outside of the planking at the point where the breadth of the boat is greatest.

Depth—Amidships inside the planking from the keel to the level of the gunwale, but the depth used in calculating the cubic capacity may not in any case exceed 45 per cent. of the breadth.

(10) The cubic capacity of a motor boat shall be obtained from the gross capacity by deducting a volume equal to that occupied by the motor and its accessories, and, when carried, the radiotelegraph equipment and searchlight with their accessories.

FOURTH SCHEDULE.

MACHINERY OF MOTOR LIFEBOATS.

PART I.

Class A motor lifeboats.

Rule 21 (1)

(1) The engine shall be capable of being started readily in cold weather and of running reliably in such weather.

(2) The engine shall operate properly under conditions of at least 10° list and 10° trim. Circulating water pumps shall be self-priming.

(3) The engine and its accessories, including the fuel tank, pipes and fittings, shall be adequately protected to ensure reliable operation under conditions likely to arise at sea during heavy weather.

(4) In a wooden lifeboat a metal tray shall be fitted under the engine.

(5) The fuel tank shall be substantially constructed. No part of the fuel tank or its fittings shall depend on soft solder for tightness. If made of steel the fuel tank shall be galvanised externally. The fuel tank and its connections shall be capable of withstanding hydraulic pressure corresponding to a head of at least 15 feet. The fuel tank shall be securely fixed in position and be fitted with suitable filling and relief arrangements. A metal tray shall be fitted under the fuel tank.

(6) The engine shall be covered in and the casing shall be of steel or shall be fireproofed.

(7) The engine and fuel tank spaces shall be efficiently ventilated.

(8) The shafting and other moving parts shall be fenced where necessary to protect the persons in the boat from injury.

PART II.

Class B motor lifeboats.

Rule 21 (2)

(1) The engine shall be capable of being started readily in cold weather and of running reliably in such weather.

(2) The engine shall operate properly under conditions of at least 10° list and 10° trim. Circulating water pumps shall be self-priming.

(3) The engine and its accessories, including the fuel tank, pipes and fittings, shall be protected to ensure reliable operation under conditions likely to arise at sea during heavy weather.

(4) In a wooden lifeboat a metal tray shall be fitted under the engine.

(5) The magneto, carburettor and air inlet of any electric ignition engine installed in the lifeboat shall be placed as high as possible. If an electric ignition engine is not fitted in a watertight casing, provision shall be made to protect the magneto, sparking plugs and other electric ignition fittings from the sea.

(6) The fuel tank shall be substantially constructed of suitable material. No part of the fuel tank or its fittings shall depend on soft solder for tightness. If made of steel the fuel tank shall be galvanised externally. The fuel tank and its connections shall be tested by hydraulic pressure corresponding to a head of at least 15 feet. The fuel tank shall be securely fixed in position and be furnished with suitable filling and relief arrangements. A metal tray shall be fitted under the fuel tank.

(7) The engine shall be covered in and the casing shall be of steel or be fireproofed.

(8) The engine and fuel tank spaces shall be efficiently ventilated.

(9) The shafting and other moving parts shall be fenced where necessary to protect the persons in the boat from injury.

FIFTH SCHEDULE.

MECHANICALLYPROPELLED LIFEBOATS OTHERTHAN MOTOR LIFEBOATS.

Rule 23.

(1) The propelling gear shall be so arranged that it can be rapidly and easily made ready for service and will not interfere with the rapid embarkation of persons in the lifeboat.

(2) If the propelling gear is manually operated it shall be capable of being operated by persons untrained in its use and shall be capable of being operated when the lifeboat is flooded.

(3) The propelling gear shall not require adjustment to enable it to be worked by persons of different stature. It shall be effective in propelling the lifeboat partially or fully loaded.

(4) The propelling gear shall be substantially constructed and fitted to the lifeboat in an efficient manner.

(5) The propelling gear shall be of sufficient power to enable the lifeboat to be propelled at a speed ahead of 3·5 knots in smooth water over a distance of ¼ mile.

(6) The propelling gear shall be capable of propelling the lifeboat ahead and astern.

SIXTH SCHEDULE.

LIFEBOAT EQUIPMENT

PART I.

Lifeboat compasses.

Rule 27 (1) (j).

(1) The compass shall be of the liquid type. The liquid used shall be a mixture of industrial methylated spirit and water, specific gravity 0.93 at 60°F. It shall be clear, free from sediment, cloudiness and dirt defects. The compass shall function efficiently over a temperature range -10°F. to +120°F.

(2) The magnet shall have ample directive force. A period of 18 to 22 seconds after a deflection of 40° at a temperature of about 60°F. will be deemed to comply with this requirement. For the purposes of this paragraph a " period " is the time taken by a complete oscillation of the card after a deflection of 40°, a swing past the position of rest, and back again to the completion of its swing on the side to which it was originally deflected.

(3) Over a range of -10°F. to +120°F. the card system when immersed in the compass liquid shall rest on the pivot with a weight between 4 and 10 grammes.

(4) The card shall be not less than 4 inches in diameter and shall have a clearance from the bowl of at least ¼ inch. It shall be marked to half points. the eight principal points being distinctively marked. The card shall be luminised.

(5) The centre shall be of sapphire or equally hard jewel, and shall be removable from the float.

(6) The pivot shall be of iridium or equally suitable hard material.

(7) The arrangements made to allow for the expansion and contraction of the liquid shall enable the compass to withstand a temperature range of -10°F. to +120°F. without leakage, formation of bubbles or other defects.

(8) The bowl shall be adequately weighted and properly poised in the gimbals which shall give a fore and aft and thwartship action. The gimballing shall be in the same horizontal place as the point of suspension of the card and the outer gimbal pins shall be placed fore and aft. The bowl shall be placed in a binnacle or box of non-magnetic material and the lubber line or point shall be luminised. The card system shall remain free when the bowl is tilted by 10°.

(9) The direction of the lubber line or point from the centre of the card shall lie in the same vertical plane as the outer gimbal axis or other fore and aft datum line. The cumulative effect of card, pivot, directional and other similar errors, and of inaccurate positioning of the lubber's point, shall be such that in the undisturbed earth's field the direction as read on the card against the lubber's point shall not differ by more than 3° from the magnetic direction of the outer gimbal axis or other fore and aft datum line for any direction of the latter.

(10) The minimum thickness of the metal used in the construction of the compass shall be as follows:—

Compass bowl

21 S.W.G.

Binnacle

24 S.W.G.

Lamp

24 S.W.G.

The compass bowl shall be efficiently stiffened to take gimbal pins. The binnacle shell shall be swaged or spun into the base ring and soldered all round.

The gimbal ring shall be of naval brass or other rigid non-magnetic metal 5/8 inch by 1/8 inch. Gimbal pins shall be of naval brass or other hard non-magnetic material of ¼ inch diameter ; both they and the bearings in which they engage shall be perfectly smooth.

(11) The paint inside the bowl shall show no sign of blistering.

(12) The materials and workmanship shall be good throughout and the compass shall be such as will remain efficient under sea-going conditions.

(13) The bowl of the compass shall be engraved or stamped with the maker's name or other identification mark.

PART II.

Lifeboat sea anchors.

Rule 27 (1) (k), (7) and (8).

(1) Every lifeboat sea anchor shall comply with the following requirements :—

(a) It shall be constructed of No. 1 best flax canvas, or other suitable material.

(b) The canvas part shall be strongly sewn together and be roped at the seams with 1¾" bolt rope; the ropes then being formed into a bridle with a thimble seized in the connecting end, and the ropes extended and seized into a parcelled loop to form the attachment for the tripping line.

(c) A hawser shall be attached to the sea anchor by means of a shackle of suitable size to take the thimble.

(d) The length of the hawser shall be three times the lifeboat's length.

(e) A tripping line two fathoms longer than the hawser shall be provided.

(2) A circular sea anchor shall be fitted at the mouth with a galvanised iron hoop. Any other type of sea anchor shall be fitted with galvanised iron spreaders across the mouth and with an ash spreader at the upper edge.

(3) The size of lifeboat sea anchors shall be as follows :—

(a) For lifeboats not over 22 feet in length—

Circular sea anchors—Mouth 24" diameter.

Non-circular folding sea anchors—Mouth 21½" each side.

Length of canvas bag—3' 6".

Hawser—2½" in circumference.

Tripping line—1½" in circumference.

(b) For lifeboats over 22 feet in length, but not over 30 feet in length—

Circular sea anchors—Mouth 27" diameter.

Non-circular folding sea anchors—Mouth 24" each side.

Length of canvas bag—4'.

Hawser—3" in circumference.

Tripping line—2" in circumference.

(c) For lifeboats over 30 feet in length—

Non-circular folding sea anchors—Mouth 30" upper edge, 27" lower edge, 27" each side. Area of mouth 770 sq. inches.

Length of canvas bag—4' 6".

Hawser—3" in circumference.

Tripping line—2" in circumference.

PART III.

Lifeboat first aid outfits.

Rule 27 (1) (q).

(1) The contents of every lifeboat first aid outfit shall comply with the Standards of the Irish Pharmacopoeia, where such standards are applicable, and shall include the following :—

(a) Collapse Revivers (6 capsules)

1 Tin

(b) Codeine Compound tablets (Tab. Codeine Co. N.W.F.)

25 Tablets

(c) Six Tubunic Ampoules of " Omnopon " each containing ½ gr. " Omnopon " equivalent to ¼ gr. anhydrous morphine

1 Tin

(d) First Field Dressings or Standard Dressings No. 14

2

(e) Shell Dressings or Standard Dressings No. 15

2

(f) Elastic Adhesive Dressings, 2" x 3", packets of three

2 Packets

(g) Bandage, Triangular, illustrated, 38" sides x 54" base, compressed

5

(h) Gauze, white, absorbent, compressed, 36" x 2½ yards

3

(i) Roller Bandage, 2½ x 4 yards compressed

4

(j) Bandage, Calico, unbleached, 6"

1 x 6 yards

(k) Cotton Wool, compressed, 4 oz. packet

1

(l) Safety Pins of rustless stainless metal

6

(m) Paraffin Jelly, 1 oz. tubes

1 tube

(n) Scissors, 4", 1 sharp, 1 blunt point, or blunt pointed, of rustless stainless metal

1

(o) Energy Tablets, 10 mg.

60 Tablets

(p) Silica Gel.

1 Capsule

(q) Ampoule-Syringes containing Total Opium Alkaloids

1 Box

(r) Instructions printed on linen.

(2) The container for the first aid outfit shall comply with the following requirements :—

(a) It shall be made of a metal of a strength which will withstand hard wear under conditions met with at sea.

(b) A handle shall be fitted to the lid.

(c) It shall be hermetically sealed and damp-proof. It shall also be sealed with a piece of wire soldered to the lid and the body of the container to indicate that the contents are intact.

(d) It shall be packed in a room from which atmospheric moisture has been removed as far as possible.

(e) It shall be well tinned and lacquered.

(f) An itemised list of the contents shall be given on the outside of the container.

PART IV.

Lifeboat manual pumps.

Rule 27 (1) (v).

Lifeboat manual pumps shall comply with the following requirements :—

(1) The capacity when operated at not more than 60 double strokes per minute, at 4 feet suction head, shall be not less than (a) 5 gallons per minute in lifeboats of under 24 feet in length and (b) 7 gallons per minute in lifeboats of 24 feet in length and over.

(2) In its normal dry state (excluding internal grease or other assistance) the pump shall be readily self priming when operated on a suction head of not less than four feet.

(3) All parts of the pump shall be of non-corrodible material unaffected by sea water.

(4) The interior of the pump, including valves, shall be readily accessible for emergency cleaning, and the cover for access shall be capable of being easily removed without the use of a spanner or other special tool.

(5) The pump branches shall be suitable for use with 1¼ inches bore rubber hose connections. The metal part of the operating handle shall be suitably sheathed by material other than wood so as to protect the hands of the operator when the pump is used in extreme cold. The spindle gland shall be of the spring loaded seal ring type.

PART V.

Lifeboat Parachute Distress Rocket Signals.

Rule 27 (1) (n).

(1) A lifeboat parachute distress rocket signal shall consist of a single bright red star which is projected to the required height by means of a rocket, and which burns while falling, its rate of fall being controlled by means of a small parachute to 15 feet per second. It is to be fitted with a self-contained means of ignition, so designed as to operate from the hand-held position without external aid, and such as to enable the rocket to be discharged from a lifeboat without harm to the occupants.

(2) When the rocket is fired approximately vertically, the star and parachute shall be ejected at or before the top of the trajectory, at a minimum height of 600 feet. The rocket shall also be capable of functioning when fired at an angle of 45 degrees to the horizontal.

(3) The star shall burn with a minimum luminosity of 10,000 candle power for not less than 30 seconds. It shall burn out at a height of not less than 150 feet from the sea level.

(4) The parachute shall be of such a size as to provide the required control of the rate of fall of the burning star. It must be attached to the star by means of a flexible fireproof harness.

(5) The rocket shall be waterproofed and capable of satisfactory functioning after immersion in water for one minute.

(6) All components, compositions and ingredients, shall be of such a character and of such a quality as to enable the rocket to maintain its serviceability under good average storage conditions for a period of at least two years.

(7) The rockets shall be packed in a container hermetically sealed.

(8) The date on which rockets are filled shall be stamped indelibly on the rockets and on the containers.

SEVENTH SCHEDULE

LIFEBOAT DISENGAGING GEARS.

Rule 33 (10).

(1) Lifeboat disengaging gears shall be so arranged as to ensure simultaneous release of both ends of the lifeboat.

(2) The means of effecting release shall be placed aft.

(3) The gear shall be of a type which will permit the release of the lifeboat only when it is waterborne.

(4) The gear shall be of a type which will permit release should there be a towing strain on the link or falls.

(5) The hooks shall be suitable for instant unhooking by hand.

(6) The point of attachment of the hook to the eye, ring or link of the block shall not be lower than when ordinary fixed hooks are fitted.

(7) The gear and mechanism for effecting release shall be so constructed and arranged as to ensure the safety of the lifeboat independently of any safety pins.

(8) The means for effecting release shall be by hauling on or letting go a line, or by using a lever. If release is effected by a pull upon a line, the line shall be properly cased in. Rods or other connections between hooks shall also be cased in whenever this is necessary for the safety or the efficient action of the gear or for the protection of persons from injury.

The fairleads shall be properly arranged to prevent the lines from jamming or nipping, and shall be strongly attached to permanent parts of the lifeboat. The lines shall be fitted with chains where necessary for efficiency.

(9) Such parts of the gear as would otherwise be likely to be set fast by rust or corrosion shall be made of non-corrodible metal.

(10) No part of the gear taking the weight of the lifeboat shall be made of cast metal.

(11) The scantlings and proportions of all parts which support the weight of the lifeboat shall be designed to provide breaking strength proportionate to a load of at least 2½ times the weight of the heaviest loaded lifeboat in which the gear is intended to be fitted.

EIGHTH-SCHEDULE.

DAVITS AND LIFEBOAT LAUNCHING GEAR.

PART I.

Construction.

Rule 33 (6) (a).

(1) Definition of working load. For the purposes of this Schedule the expression " the working load " means the sum of the weight of the lifeboat, the equipment, the blocks and falls and the maximum number of persons with which the lifeboat is required to be lowered into the water, the weight of each person being taken to be 165 lb. Provided however that if two lifeboats are served by the same pair of davits, the working load in relation to those davits shall be the maximum load that may be imposed on them at any time.

(2) Luffing davits. The operating gear of luffing type davits shall be of sufficient power to ensure that the lifeboats fully equipped and manned with the launching crew, but not loaded with other persons, can be turned out against a list of at least 15 degrees.

(3) Gravity davits.

(a) In the case of gravity type davits comprising arms mounted on rollers which engage with and travel down fixed inclined trackways, the trackways shall be inclined at an angle of not less than 30 degrees to the horizontal when the vessel is upright.

(b) Gravity davits of other types shall be so designed that there is a positive turning out moment during the whole of the davit travel from the inboard to the outboard position when the vessel is listed up to 25 degrees either way.

(c) Where gravity type davits are fitted with electric motors for recovering the lifeboats, automatic cut-outs shall be fitted and arranged to operate before the davits come against the runway stops in order to avoid overstressing the wire rope falls or davits.

(4) Stresses. The designed stress on the davit arms, when operating under maximum load and conditions of list, shall afford an adequate factor of safety, having regard to the quality of the material used, the method of construction, and the live nature of the load to which the davits are subjected.

(5) Static load test. In the case of all davits made of cast steel, or of wrought steel or other material fabricated by a welding process, the davits with their arms at full outreach shall be capable of withstanding a static load test of not less than 2·2 times the working load.

(6) Attachments at the davit head. The attachments at the davit head from which the blocks are suspended shall be capable of withstanding a proof load test of not less than 2½ times the working load.

(7) Blocks.

(a) Lifeboat blocks shall be of ample strength having regard to the working load upon the davits.

(b) In the case of metal blocks the material used shall be of ductile quality and adequate strength. No part of gear intended to bear the weight of a lifeboat shall be constructed of cast metal unless the Minister shall so allow in the case of any ship. Metal blocks shall be capable of withstanding a proof load test of not less than 2½ times the working load on the davits. There shall be ample clearance between the checks of blocks in which cordage rope is used. The width between the cheeks shall be half an inch greater than the diameter of new cordage ropes when those ropes are 3¾ inches in circumference, and less in proportion to the circumference of the ropes when they are smaller.

(8) Wire ropes.

(a) The breaking tensile load of wire ropes used for lowering boats shall be not less than six times the working load.

(b) Wire ropes shall be securely attached to the drum of the winch, and the end attachments of the wires and other parts from which the lifeboat is to be suspended shall be capable of withstanding a proof load of not less than 2½ times the working load.

(c) Where wire splices are used they shall be capable of withstanding a proof test of not less than 2½ times the working load unless sample splices of each size of wire when tested to destruction, give a factor of safety at the splice of not less than 5.

(9) Winches.

(a) Winch drums shall be arranged to keep the two falls separate and to enable them to be payed out at the same rate. The leads of the wire ropes shall be such that they will wind evenly on the drums. Lead blocks shall be arranged at least 7 feet from the winch drums.

(b) The brakes of lifeboat winches shall be of robust construction and afford complete control and limitation of speed in the operation of lowering. The hand brake shall be so arranged that it is normally in the " ON " position and returns to the " ON " position when the control handle is not being operated. The weight on the brake lever shall be sufficient to operate the brake effectively without additional pressure. The brake gear shall include means for automatically controlling the speed of lowering to ensure that the boat is lowered expeditiously without exceeding a rate of lowering consistent with safety. For this purpose, the automatic brake shall be set to give a speed of lowering of the lifeboat of between 60 and 120 feet per minute. Ratchet gear shall be incorporated in the hand brake mechanism of lifeboat winches Where practicable the brake gear shall be so situated as to enable the man operating the winch to have the lifeboat under observation during the whole process of its being launched into the water.

(c) When more than one lifeboat is served by the same wire falls the winches shall be fitted with quick return hand gear to enable the falls to be rapidly recovered, the lower blocks, when fitted, shall be non-toppling, and, where necessary, provision shall be made to prevent the falls from cabling.

(10) Cordage rope falls.

(a) Cordage ropes used for falls shall be durable, unkinkable, firm aid and pliable. They shall be able to pass freely under any conditions, through a hole 3/8 inch larger than the nominal diameter of the rope.

(b) The breaking loads of cordage ropes shall be not less than :—

Size of Rope

Breaking Load

3¾ inches

6 tons

3½ "

5.25 "

3¼ "

4.5 "

3 "

3.85 "

2¾ "

3.25 "

2½ "

2.7 "

2½ " ("Ordinary quality")

2.2 "

(c) Cordage ropes of less than 2½ inches shall not be used for lifeboat falls. Winding reels or flaking boxes for the falls shall be provided.

(d) Where cordage rope falls are used to serve two lifeboats stowed one above another under one pair of davits, a separate set of blocks and falls shall be provided for each lifeboat. The falls for the first lifeboat to be launched shall be attached to the davits and to the lifeboat ready for service. The falls for the second lifeboat to be launched shall be kept in position attached to the davits, but not necessarily attached to the lifeboat, provided that the lower blocks are taken to suitable ring bolts on deck or to strops on the davit or are otherwise arranged in such a manner that the falls will not interfere with the launching of the first lifeboat and will be immediately available for attachment to the second lifeboat.

(11) Wood blocks for cordage rope falls. Wood blocks for lifeboats of standard proportions shall be as follows :—

Length of boat not over

Davits in ships of Classes I, II, III, IV, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIV and XV

Davits in ships of Classes V, VI, VII and XIII.

Block

Purchase of falls*

Size of cordage rope

Block

Purchase of falls*

Size of cordage rope

Feet

Ins.

Ins.

Ins.

Ins.

30...   ...

13

T &T

12

T &T

29...   ...

13

"

12

"

28...   ...

13

"

12

"

27...   ...

12

"

11

"

3

26...   ...

12

"

11

T &D

3

25...   ...

12

"

11

"

3

24...   ...

11

"

3

10

"

23...   ...

11

T &D

3

10

"

22...   ...

10

"

9

D &D

21...   ...

10

"

9

"

2½†

20...   ...

9

D &D

2½†

8

"

2½†

19...   ...

9

"

8

D &S

2½†

18...   ...

9

"

2½†

8

"

2½†

17...   ...

8

"

2½†

8

"

2½†

16...   ...

8

"

2½†

8

"

2½†

*T=Triple D=Double S=Single.       †Ordinary quality breaking load 2·2 tons.

(12) Bollards. Suitable bollards or other equally effective appliances for lowering lifeboats shall be provided in all cases where cordage rope falls are used. For lifeboats not exceeding 20 feet in length, horn cleats attached to the davits may be fitted in lieu of bollards. For lifeboats over 20 feet but not exceeding 25 feet in length, a double bollard may be fixed to each davit. For lifeboats over 25 feet in length, bollards of the cruciform type shall be attached to the deck, and in the case of lifeboats not over 27 feet in length the horizontal arms shall be not less than 5 inches in diameter, and sufficiently long to take at least four turns of the largest rope with which they will be used. In the case of lifeboats over 27 feet in length the arms shall be 6 inches in diameter, and not less than 6 inches in length from the side of the column. Ample lips or flanges shall be provided at the ends of the arms to prevent the fall from jumping off. Fairleads shall be fitted and be arranged so as to ensure that the lifeboat is not lifted during the process of swinging out.

PART II

Lowering tests.

Rule 33 (6) (a).

In ships of Classes I, II, III, IV, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIV and XV each pair of davits, and, where fitted, the lifeboat winches including their hand and automatic brakes, shall be capable of withstanding the following test :—if not more than one lifeboat is suspended from the davits when in the outboard position the lifeboat at each set of davits shall be lowered from the embarkation deck to the water loaded with the usual equipment and a distributed weight equal to the full number of persons for which it measures plus 10 per cent. of the total load, including blocks and falls ; if two lifeboats are suspended from the davits when in the outboard position, the heavier lifeboat loaded as indicated above shall be lowered from the embarkation deck to the water while the other lifeboat, with its blocks and falls and loaded with the usual equipment, plus 10 per cent. of the weight of the lifeboat, equipment, blocks and falls is suspended from the davits. Winch brakes exposed to the weather shall be capable of withstanding the foregoing test with the braking surface wetted.

NINTH SCHEDULE.

BUOYANT APPARATUS.

Rule 25.

(1) Buoyant apparatus shall be capable of withstanding a drop test, the height of which shall be equivalent to that of the deck on which it is stowed above the ship's light water line, but in no case less than the following :—

Apparatus carried in ships of Class I

60 ft.

Apparatus carried in ships of Classes II and III

35 ft.

Apparatus carried in ships of Class IV

20 ft.

(2) The framework of buoyant apparatus shall be of hardwood, but the wood casing or sparring may be of softwood. The method of securing the corners shall be such as to avoid fastenings into end grain timber. The interior of the apparatus shall be well ventilated. There shall be no projections from the apparatus which would prevent it from sliding easily over a ship's rail during launching.

(3) Grab lines shall be fitted all round the apparatus in such a manner as to provide a number of equal loops corresponding to the number of persons for whom the apparatus is certified. Each loop shall have a cork or light wood float and the depth of the loop when wet shall not be less than 6 inches and not more than 8 inches.

On apparatus exceeding 12 inches in overall depth two rows of grab lines shall be fitted, one having its points of attachment of little below the top of the air cases and the other a little above the bottom of the air cases and as close to the sides of the air cases as is practicable. On apparatus of 12 inches or less in overall depth one row of grab lines may be attached along the line of the middle of the depth.

The grab lines shall be of rope of not less than 1¾ inches in circumference. They may be attached to the apparatus by being passed through holes in the framing and being interlaced to prevent movement, or they may be attached to the apparatus by means of wrought iron or steel fastenings. Whichever method is adopted the attachment shall be strong enough to permit the apparatus being lifted by the grab lines.

(4) Buoyant apparatus shall not exceed 400 lb. in weight unless suitable means are provided to enable it to be launched without lifting by hand. If the weight of the apparatus exceeds 300 lb. suitable handles or rungs shall be fitted for this purpose.

(5) Buoyant apparatus shall be effective and stable when floating either way up. It shall be capable of supporting a weight of iron, suspended in fresh water from the grab lines, of 15 lb. per foot of length along any edge (subject to a minimum of 64 lb.) without immersing any part of the upper surface of the apparatus.

(6) The air cases or equivalent buoyancy shall be placed as near as possible to the sides of the apparatus, and such buoyancy shall not be dependent upon inflation. If the buoyancy is provided by metal air cases, such air cases shall be of copper, yellow metal or other durable material and not more than 4 feet in length. If the air cases are more than 2 feet 6 inches in length or breadth they shall be efficiently stiffened by divisions or stays. The air cases shall not be pierced for the attachment of wood divisions or stays. They shall be protected from damage by properly fitted wood casing or sparring and be secured against movement within the casing. No iron work shall be placed in contact with metal air cases.

(7) Buoyant apparatus shall be fitted with a painter.

(8) Buoyant apparatus carried in ships of Class I shall not be less than 3 feet 6 inches in breadth.

TENTH SCHEDULE.

LIFEBUOYS.

Rule 35 (2).

(1) The inside diameter of lifebuoys shall be eighteen inches and the outside diameter thirty inches. The major axis of the section shall be 6 inches. The minor axis of the section shall be 4 inches.

(2) The buoyant material shall be covered with good quality material, the sewing of which shall be carried out with thread of not less strength than No. 25A cord.

(3) The completed lifebuoy shall be well coated with paint.

(4) The grab lines shall be of good quality unkinkable line, well secured to the cover by sewing or seizing, and, in addition, by bands of a double thickness of the covering material three inches wide around the section of the lifebuoy at four equidistant points, providing four loops of line each not less than two feet four inches long.

(5) The weight of a lifebuoy shall not exceed thirteen and a half pounds

ELEVENTH SCHEDULE.

LIFEJACKETS.

Rule 34 (1).

(1) The buoyancy shall be provided by cork, kapok, or other equally efficient buoyant material.

(2) A cork lifejacket shall be capable of supporting sixteen and a half pounds of iron in fresh water for twenty-four hours. The cork shall not weigh more than twelve pounds per cubic foot, and shall be of good quality, cleaned and in pieces the size of which shall not be less than ten cubic inches.

(3) A kapok lifejacket shall be capable of supporting at least twenty pounds of iron in fresh water after floating in fresh water for twenty-four hours with sixteen and a half pounds of iron attached. The kapok shall be of the best flotation quality, well teased, evenly packed and free from seeds and other foreign matters. At least twenty-four ounces of such kapok shall be in each lifejacket.

(4) The covering of lifejackets shall comply with the following requirements :—

(a) Kapok lifejackets. The weight of the covering per lineal yard shall be not less than five ounces for a width of twenty-seven inches and in proportion for other widths. The threads per inch shall be warp 38 two-fold threads, weft 54 single threads. The sewing shall be carried out with thread not less strong than No. 25 thread.

(b) Cork lifejackets.

(i) If the covering is of cotton material the weight of the covering per lineal yard shall be not less than seven and a half ounces for a width of twenty-seven inches, and in proportion for other widths. The threads per inch shall be warp 42 twofold threads, weft 29 two-fold threads.

(ii) If the covering is of linen material, the weight per lineal yard shall be not less than six ounces for a width of twenty-seven inches and in proportion for other widths. The threads per inch shall be 28 in both the warp and weft.

(5) The tapes of all lifejackets shall be of linen web, one and a quarter inches wide capable of bearing a strain of 200 pounds. The tapes shall be securely attached to the lifejacket cover. The method of fixing and tying of the tapes shall be such as to be easily understood and capable of being readily carried out.

(6) All lifejackets shall be marked indelibly on one side with a name indicating the design of the lifejacket in letters not less than one inch in size, and on the other side with the maker's name or other indentification mark in smaller letters.

EIGHTEENTH SCHEDULE.

BREATHING APPARATUS, SMOKE HELMETS AND SMOKE MASKS.

Rules 54, 79 and 85 (2) (c).

(1) Every breathing apparatus provided in compliance with these Rules shall be self-contained. Means shall be provided for warning the wearer that any reacting chemicals forming part of the apparatus are about to be exhausted.

(2) Every smoke helmet or smoke mask provided in compliance with these Rules shall be provided with a hose for the supply of air from the outside atmosphere. The hose shall be of a non-collapsing type and shall be sufficient in length to enable the inlet end to be on deck or elsewhere in clean air while the wearer of the helmet or mask is in any part of the cargo space, crew space or passenger space, if any. If the hose is more than 90 feet in length a pump or bellows shall be provided which shall be suitable for pumping air through the hose. Efficient couplings shall be provided if two or more lengths of hose are joined in order to reach the aforesaid spaces. The inlet end of the hose shall be capable of being secured in position and shall be so protected as to ensure that the supply of air cannot be obstructed.

(3) The following equipment shall be provided for use with the breathing apparatus, smoke helmet, or smoke mask:—

(a) a life-and-signalling-line at least 10 feet longer than is required to reach from the deck or elsewhere in clean air to any part of the cargo space, crew space or passenger space, if any ; the line shall be made of hemp-covered wire rope at least 1¼ inches in circumference ; the wire incorporated in the rope shall have a breaking strength of not less than 1 ton and shall be made of copper or galvanised steel ; provided that, in any tanker, rope made without wire, but having a breaking strength of not less than 1 ton, may be carried in lieu;

(b) an adjustable safety belt or harness to which the aforesaid line shall be securely attached;

(c) means for protecting the eyes and face of the wearer against smoke.

(4) The breathing apparatus, smoke helmet or smoke mask shall each be clearly and permanently marked with the name of the maker or vendor and the year in which they were manufactured. Operating instructions in clear and permanent lettering shall be affixed to the said equipment.

GIVEN under my Official Seal, this 12th day of November, 1953.

SEÁN F. LEMASS,

Minister for Industry and Commerce.

SEVENTEENTH SCHEDULE.

PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS (OTHER THAN CARBON DIOXIDE AND CARBON TETRACHLORIDE EXTINGUISHERS).

Rule 96.

(1) Every portable fire extinguisher provided in compliance with these Rules, other than a carbon dioxide or carbon tetrachloride fire extinguisher, shall be of a capacity of not less than two gallons, except in the case of the extinguishers of one gallon capacity referred to in Rule 73.

(2) The body of every portable extinguisher shall be cylindrical with dished ends or conical with the larger end dished. The dishing shall be outwards, without reverse flanging, to a radius not exceeding the diameter of the body. If the extinguisher stands vertically a metal support shall be securely attached to the body.

(3) The body and ends of the extinguisher shall be made of sheet steel or copper, in either case tinned or lead-covered internally, and every part of the extinguisher shall, where necessary, be protected against corrosion.

(4) If the body is made of sheet steel it shall be solid drawn, welded or riveted. All rivet holes shall be drilled, and all riveted joints shall be soldered.

(5) If the body is made of copper it shall be solid drawn or riveted. All rivet holes shall be drilled and all riveted joints shall be soldered or brazed.

(6) The body shall be provided with an opening for the introduction of an inner container. The opening shall not be less than 3 inches in diameter and shall be fitted with a gun-metal cap the screwed part of which shall be approximately ¾ inch deep and shall be screwed with a continuous thread through the side of which safety holes or slots shall be provided so that when the cap is being removed any pressure of gas remaining in the container will be released gradually should the discharge opening be choked. The cap joint shall be made with acid-resisting rubber, greased leather, or other suitable material, and shall not exceed 1/8 inch in thickness. Any cage for holding glass bottles shall be removable, so as to facilitate the cleaning and inspection of the interior of the extinguisher. Any protector fitted to a plunger shall be of the open or cage type. The body shall be capable of withstanding an internal pressure of 350 lb. per square inch for five minutes.

(7) Extinguishers containing fluid shall be provided with a device which will, when the extinguisher is not in use, prevent the fluid from rising in the discharge tube in consequence of a rise in the temperature of the atmosphere. The discharge tube or opening in such extinguishers shall be fitted with a strainer. Any internal discharge tubes shall be of sufficient length to discharge substantially the whole of the fluid in the extinguisher. No cocks or valves shall be fitted for stopping the discharge of the fluid.

(8) The extinguisher shall be capable of projecting fluid for a distance of 20 feet during a period of one minute.

(9) The extinguisher shall be provided with fixed handles which will enable it to be readily transported and used.

(10) The discharge tube or opening shall be provided with a screwed connection which will facilitate testing.

(11) The charge and the air space above the level of the fluid in the body shall be so regulated that, if the extinguisher is put into action with all outlets closed, the internal pressure will not exceed 200 lb. per square inch when the fluid is at a temperature of 100°F.

(12) The outside of the extinguisher shall be clearly and permanently marked with—

(a) the name of the maker or vendor of the extinguisher;

(b) the capacity of the extinguisher;

(c) the level of the fluid, when the extinguisher is filled to its working capacity;

(d) a certificate by the maker that the extinguisher has been tested by hydraulic pressure to 350 lb. per square inch;

(e) instructions for operating the extinguisher; and

(f) the year in which the extinguisher was manufactured.

SIXTEENTH SCHEDULE.

CARBON TETRACHLORIDE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS.

Rule 96.

(1) Every carbon tetrachloride fire extinguisher provided in compliance with these Rules shall be of a nominal fluid capacity of one quart.

(2) The body of the extinguisher shall be cylindrical and shall be constructed of copper or brass, in either case of a thickness not less than No. 22 L.S.G. All internal fittings of the extinguisher shall be made of copper, brass, bronze or lead, and all joint washers shall be made of material which will resist carbon tetrachloride.

(3) Provision shall be made by which the carbon tetrachloride in the extinguisher can be sealed off from the atmosphere when the extinguisher is not in use, so as to prevent evaporation of the carbon tetrachloride.

(4) The extinguisher shall be provided with a hand pump which shall be self-contained and double-acting. The plunger packing shall consist of material which will resist carbon tetrachloride. The extinguisher shall be capable of discharging substantially the whole of the carbon tetrachloride which it contains, whatever the position in which it is held, and of projecting that fluid for a distance of 20 feet throughout a period of one minute.

(5) The carbon tetrachloride provided for use with the extinguisher shall be of a standard of purity approved by the Minister.

(6) The outside of the extinguisher shall be clearly and permanently marked with—

(a) the name of the maker or vendor of the extinguisher;

(b) the capacity of the extinguisher;

(c) instructions for operating the extinguisher;

(d) the year in which the extinguisher was manufactured; and

(e) a notice indicating that if the extinguisher is used for extinguishing fire in a confined space dangerous fumes will be given off and must not be inhaled.

FIFTEENTH SCHEDULE.

CARBON DIOXIDE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS.

Rule 96.

(1) Every carbon dioxide fire extinguisher provided in compliance with these Rules shall be provided with cylinders constructed in accordance with a standard specification approved by the Minister.

(2) Each cylinder shall be provided with an internal discharge tube, and a valve to release the gas.

(3) The extinguisher shall be provided with a discharge hose which shall be reinforced so as to withstand a pressure of at least 1,800 lb. per square inch when the necessary couplings are fitted. The bore of the discharge hose shall not be less than the sizes respectively set forth in the following table :—

Capacity of extinguisher.

Minimum bore of discharge hose.

10 lb.

¼ inch.

35 lb.

3/8 inch.

100 lb.

½ inch.

The discharge hose shall be provided with a horn which shall be insulated and of a design which will reduce the velocity of the gas discharged.

(4) At any temperature between 50°F, and 70°F., inclusive, the extinguisher shall discharge gas at such a rate that carbon dioxide equal in weight to ¾ of the capacity of the container will be discharged in the periods respectively set forth in the following table.—

Capacity of extinguisher.

Period.

10 lb.

20 seconds.

35 lb.

35 seconds.

100 lb.

70 seconds.

(5) The outside of the extinguisher shall be clearly and permanently marked with—

(a) the name of the vendor of the extinguisher;

(b) instructions for operating the extinguisher;

(c) markings which will indicate the respective weights of the extinguisher when empty and when filled; and

(d) the year in which the extinguisher was manufactured.

FOURTEENTH SCHEDULE.

NON-PORTABLE FROTH FIRE EXTINGUISHERS.

Rule 96.

(1) Every froth fire extinguisher, other than a portable fire extinguisher, provided in compliance with these Rules shall be so designed and constructed that the interior of the extinguisher can be examined.

(2) The body of the extinguisher shall be cylindrical with ends which shall be dished outwards, without reverse flanging, to a radius not exceeding the diameter of the body. The body and ends shall be made of sheet steel which shall be tinned or lead-coated internally, and every part of the extinguisher shall, where necessary, be protected against corrosion.

(3) The body of the extinguisher shall be welded or riveted. All riveted joints shall be soldered.

(4) The body shall be provided with an opening for the introduction of an inner container. The opening shall be fitted with a cap of gunmetal or other suitable material, screwed with a continuous thread, through the side of which safety holes or slots shall be provided so that when the cap is being removed any pressure of gas remaining in the container may be released gradually should the discharge opening be choked. The cap joint shall be made with acid-resisting rubber, greased leather, or other suitable material.

(5) If the extinguisher is provided with an inner container, such container shall be adequately supported.

(6) A reinforced discharge hose shall be provided, together with a nozzle, the area of which shall be such that, when the extinguisher is operated, the froth is projected a distance of 45 feet for a period of not less than 100 seconds, in the case of an extinguisher of 30 gallons capacity or over, and a distance of 35 feet for a period of not less than 90 seconds in the case of an extinguisher of under 30 gallons capacity.

(7) The charge and the air space above the level of the solution in the body shall be so regulated that the maximum pressure in the extinguisher when put into action, with all outlets closed, does not exceed 280 lb. per square inch with the solution at a temperature of 100° F.

(8) The extinguisher shall be capable of withstanding for a period of 5 minutes an internal pressure of 1½ times the pressure in the extinguisher when put into action with all outlets closed, and in no event of less than 350 lb.

(9) The outside of the extinguisher shall be clearly and permanently marked with—

(a) the name of the maker or vendor of the extinguisher;

(b) the capacity of the extinguisher;

(c) the level of the solution, when the extinguisher is filled to its working capacity;

(d) the pressure under which the extinguisher was tested;

(e) instructions for operating the extinguisher; and

(f) the year in which the extinguisher was manufactured.

THIRTEENTH SCHEDULE.

FROTH FIRE EXTINGUISHING INSTALLATIONS.

Rules 50, 61, 76. 81 (4), 85 (3) (c), 86 (3) (c) and 89 (3) (d).

(1) Every froth fire extinguishing installation of the gravity type provided in compliance with these Rules shall be provided with—

(a) containers for the froth-forming solution, so placed that a fire in the space intended to be protected will not interfere with the effective working of the installation;

(b) outlet valves for the containers, so arranged that the solutions will be released from the containers simultaneously and in proper proportions by the operation of a control-wheel or control-handle, in either case so placed as not to be rendered inaccessible by a fire in the space intended to be protected;

(c) means for agitating and sampling the froth-forming solutions and for testing the expansion rates thereof.

(2) In every froth fire extinguishing installation of the continuous-generator type provided in compliance with these Rules, the froth-forming apparatus, pumps and source of power for the pumps, together with all controlling devices and other accessories necessary for efficient operation, shall be so arranged that a fire in the space intended to be protected will not prevent the efficient working of the installation.

(3) Every such installation of the gravity or continuous-generator type shall be provided with a system of distribution pipes so arranged as to enable the froth to be effectively distributed. Provision shall be made to prevent the obstruction of the pipes or their outlets by water or otherwise, and to enable the efficiency of the pipes to be readily tested. The pipes shall not be led through any refrigerated space unless they are insulated and provision is made for draining them.

(4) Instructions in clear and permanent lettering shall be affixed to the equipment or in a position adjacent thereto.

TWELFTH SCHEDULE.

SHIPS' DISTRESS ROCKET SIGNALS.

Rule 44 (1) and (2).

(1) A distress rocket signal shall consist of a single bright red star which is projected to the required height by means of a rocket, and which burns while falling, its rate of fall being controlled by means of a parachute to 15 feet per second.

(2) When the rocket is fired approximately vertically, the star and parachute shall be ejected at or before the top of the trajectory, at a minimum height of 750 feet. The rocket shall also be capable of functioning when fired at an angle of forty-five degrees to the horizontal.

(3) The star shall burn with a minimum luminosity of 25,000 candle power for not less than forty seconds. It shall burn-out at a height of not less than 150 feet from the sea level.

(4) The parachute shall be of such size as to provide the required control of the rate of fall of the burning star. It shall be attached to the star by means of a flexible fireproof harness.

(5) The rocket may be ignited by any suitable method. If external ignition by means of a safety fuse is employed, the outer end of the safety fuse shall be covered with a metal ferrule primed with match composition and a separate striker shall be suitably attached to each rocket.

(6) The match composition, the striker compostion, the ferrule and the whole of the external surface of the rocket shall be water-proofed.

(7) The rocket shall be capable of functioning properly after immersion in water for one minute and removal of the adhering water by shaking.

(8) All components, compositions and ingredients shall be of such a character and of such a quality as to enable the rocket to maintain its serviceability under good average storage conditions for a period of at least two years.

(9) The rocket shall be packed in a metal container hermetically sealed.

(10) The date on which rockets are filled shall be stamped indelibly on the rockets and on the containers.