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Criminal Justice (Theft and Fraud Offences) Act, 2001

Interpretation (general).

2.—(1) In this Act—

“appropriates” has the meaning given to it by section 4 (5);

“deception” has the meaning given to it by subsection (2);

“dishonestly” means without a claim of right made in good faith;

“document” includes—

(a) a map, plan, graph, drawing, photograph or record, or

(b) a reproduction in permanent legible form, by a computer or other means (including enlarging), of information in non-legible form;

“gain” and “loss” have the meanings given to them by subsection (3);

“information in non-legible form” means information which is kept (by electronic means or otherwise) on microfilm, microfiche, magnetic tape or disk or in any other non-legible form;

“owner” and “ownership”, in relation to property, have the meanings given to them by subsection (4);

“premises” includes a vehicle, vessel, aircraft or hovercraft or an installation in the territorial seas or in a designated area (within the meaning of the Continental Shelf Act, 1968 ) or a tent, caravan or other temporary or movable structure;

“property” means money and all other property, real or personal, including things in action and other intangible property;

“record” includes any information in non-legible form which is capable of being reproduced in permanent legible form;

“stealing” means committing an offence under section 4 , and cognate words shall be construed accordingly;

“stolen property” includes property which has been unlawfully obtained otherwise than by stealing, and cognate words shall be construed accordingly;

“theft” has the meaning given to it by section 4 (1); and

“unlawfully obtained” means obtained in circumstances constituting an offence, and cognate words shall be construed accordingly.

(2) For the purposes of this Act a person deceives if he or she—

(a) creates or reinforces a false impression, including a false impression as to law, value or intention or other state of mind,

(b) prevents another person from acquiring information which would affect that person's judgement of a transaction, or

(c) fails to correct a false impression which the deceiver previously created or reinforced or which the deceiver knows to be influencing another to whom he or she stands in a fiduciary or confidential relationship,

and references to deception shall be construed accordingly.

(3) For the purposes of this Act—

(a) “gain” and “loss” are to be construed as extending only to gain or loss in money or other property, whether any such gain or loss is temporary or permanent,

(b) “gain” includes a gain by keeping what one has, as well as a gain by getting what one has not, and

(c) “loss” includes a loss by not getting what one might get, as well as a loss by parting with what one has.

(4) For the purposes of this Act—

(a) a person shall be regarded as owning property if he or she has possession or control of it, or has in it any proprietary right or interest (not being an equitable interest arising only from an agreement to transfer or grant an interest);

(b) where property is subject to a trust, the persons who own it shall be regarded as including any person having a right to enforce the trust, and an intention to defeat the trust shall be regarded accordingly as an intention to deprive of the property any person having that right;

(c) where a person receives property from or on behalf of another, and is under an obligation to that other person to retain and deal with that property or its proceeds in a particular way, that other person shall be regarded (as against the first-mentioned person) as the owner of the property;

(d) where a person gets property by another's mistake and is under an obligation to make restoration (in whole or in part) of the property or its proceeds or of the value thereof, then the person entitled to restoration shall to the extent of that obligation be regarded (as against the first-mentioned person) as the owner of the property or its proceeds or an amount equivalent to its value, and an intention not to make restoration shall be regarded accordingly as an intention to deprive that person of the property, proceeds or such amount;

(e) property of a corporation sole shall be regarded as belonging to the corporation notwithstanding a vacancy in the corporation,

and references to “owner” and “ownership” shall be construed accordingly.

(5) (a) A reference in this Act to a Part, section or Schedule is a reference to a Part, section or Schedule of this Act unless it is indicated that a reference to some other Act is intended.

(b) A reference in this Act to a subsection, paragraph or subparagraph is to the subsection, paragraph or subparagraph of the provision in which the reference occurs unless it is indicated that a reference to some other provision is intended.

(c) A reference in this Act to any enactment shall be construed as a reference to that enactment as amended, adapted or extended, whether before or after the passing of this Act, by or under any subsequent enactment.